guangzhou

Article

July 6, 2022

Guangzhou (simplified Chinese: 广州; traditional: 廣州; pinyin: Guǎngzhōu; Cantonese: Gwong2 zau1 English: Guangzhou or Canton), or Canton, is the capital of the southern Guangdong Province of the People's Republic of China and the administrative center of the entire southern province of China. As a sub-provincial city, it has the same authority as a surname. It covers an area of ​​7,434 km2 and has a population of about 15.39 million people. It is the third largest city in China after Beijing and Shanghai. Although there is Tianjin, a city directly under the direct control of Guangzhou, the urban population has already surpassed that of Guangzhou, and the scale of its own metropolitan area is much larger. Guangzhou's nicknames include "Yangcheng", "Hwaseong", "Suseong", and so on. Nearby cities are Shenzhen, Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhaoqing, Dongguan, Qingyuan, Jiangmen, Zhongshan, Zhuhai and Macau.

History

In ancient times, it was the land of a hundred months (百越). The beginning of the Qin Emperor Shi Huangdi unification of China and the establishment of Namhae County Beonwu County in present-day Guangzhou in 214 BC. After the collapse of the Qin Empire, the Han Chinese bureaucrat Jota (趙佗) established Namwol-guk (南越國) and became independent, but it was destroyed by the Emperor Wu of Jeonhan. During the Han dynasty, it belonged to Gyoju (交州), and among the three kingdoms, Gwangju was divided and ruled by Gwangju. From ancient times, it developed as a center for trade in the South Sea of ​​China, and at that time, a large number of Muslims and Jews came to trade. In the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, Gwangju became the capital of the South Korean kingdom. Even in the Ming Dynasty, when the ban policy was implemented, Guangzhou became the port of entry for tribute ships of the Namhae Empire. During the Opium War in 1841, it was briefly occupied by British troops, and in 1911, Sun Yuan led the Guangzhou Uprising, which became the starting point of the Xinhai Revolution. After Yuankai's death, Sun Yuan became President of the Republic of China at the southern foot of Yuesiu Mountain in 1921 and made Guangzhou the provisional capital of the Republic of China. In 1924, in order to unify China, which was supposed to be a warlord, a national-industrial joint operation was carried out to establish the Huangpu Military Academy, with Chiang Kai-shek as the principal and Zhou Enlai as the deputy head of politics. At this time, Mao Zedong also held a peasant movement workshop in Guangzhou. After Sun's death in 1925, Chiang Kai-shek's Kuomintang split with the Communist Party. In 1927, the Communist Party established the Gwangju Commune, but was immediately invaded by the Kuomintang forces. Chiang Kai-shek moved the capital to Nanjing in 1928. Even after the founding of the People's Republic of China, Guangzhou, close to Hong Kong, served as China's foreign trade port and held the Canton Fair every spring and autumn. In 1979, when Deng Xiaoping adopted the policy of opening the economy to the outside world, Guangzhou, which had special economic zones such as Shenzhen and Zhuhai, developed rapidly economically. However, as a large number of people flock from rural areas, social problems are also serious.

Geography

Guangzhou is a port city located in the northern part of the Pearl River Delta region, at the confluence of the West River, the North River, and the East River. Neighboring cities include Foshan, Jiangmen, Zhaoqing, Shaoguan, Shantou, Maoming, Haikou, and Zhanjiang, an emerging trading port. ) is there.

Climate

According to China's climate classification, it has a southern subtropical oceanic monsoon climate, with an average annual temperature of 22.8 degrees Celsius and a maximum monthly average temperature of 28.6 - 29.3 degrees Celsius. The average annual precipitation is 1736.1 mm, and the annual sunshine hours range from 1,218 to 1,826 hours.

Administrative Division

It has jurisdiction over 11 municipalities.

Economy

Guangzhou is the main manufacturing center of the Pearl River Delta and one of the leading commercial and manufacturing regions of the People's Republic of China. In 2008, the GDP reached 821.5 billion yuan (US$120.3 billion) and the per capita GDP reached 81233 yuan (US$11894), ranking sixth among 659 cities in the People's Republic of China.