Gregor Mendel

Article

January 19, 2022

Gregor Mendel (German: 20 July 1822 – 6 January 1884) was an Austrian botanist, plant experimenter, Augustinian monk, and priest. He is a biologist who founded the first chapter of genetics.

Life

Birth (early natural science research)

Mendel was born on July 20, 1822, in Heinzendorf, a small town in the Meren region of the Austrian Empire (now the Czech Republic), the son of a peasant. Mendel, who had been helping with farming and gardening since childhood, naturally developed an interest in the natural sciences. From 1834 to 1840, he attended the gymnasium (corresponding to middle and high schools in Korea) in Troppau (now Opava, Czech Republic), and from 1840 to 1843 in Olmuz (now Olomouc, Czech Republic). At the Institute of Philosophy received supplementary education for university entrance. However, despite his great attachment to education, Mendel fell ill due to a back injury caused by forced labor from his father's landlord. ), joined the Augustine Order, founded in the 14th century, and was given the name Gregorian. Life as a Roman Catholic monk freed Mendel from material poverty, studied theology at a seminary run by the Order, was ordained a Roman Catholic priest in 1847, and acquired a great knowledge of science during his novitiate at the monastery. . In 1849 Mendel became an assistant teacher at the Znaim (Znoimo) secondary school near Brün, where he briefly taught Greek and mathematics. At the same time, Mendel, unable to give up his previously unfulfilled dream of studying natural sciences at the university, tried to enter the Faculty of Natural Sciences of the University of Vienna in 1850, but failed the exam, and took the regular teacher exam, but also failed. Thereafter, on the recommendation of the abbot, he entered the University of Vienna as an auditor for the winter semester, where he studied, taking lectures on the basics of the natural sciences: physics, chemistry, mathematics, zoology, and botany (1851–53). In 1853, to broaden his knowledge and contact with academia, he joined the Vienna Fauna and Flora Society, and in 1854 he presented a study on pests of peas at the conference. In 1854 he returned to Brün, where he taught natural sciences at the Brün State School of Practical Sciences until 1868, but never received his teaching license.

Pea experiment and genetic law study

From 1856, he started experimenting with genetics using peas in a small garden in the monastery. Seven years later, he discovered 'Mendelism/Mendel's law'. This fact was announced at the regular meeting of the Society of Natural Sciences in Brune in 1865, and the paper was printed and presented separately. In the meantime, he made 225 artificial crosses on the plant, yielding 12,000 hybrids, and he continued to experiment. However, his research was not recognized, and it was not until the 1900s that it was re-evaluated.

After the Pea Experiment

His interest and research in botany, beekeeping, and meteorology continued until his death, but when he became a father in 1868, science took a bit of a break from his life. The tedious fight continued, such as confiscation. Eventually, he ended his life in poverty, suffering from chronic kidney disease. However, after his death, Mendel's laws were accepted by the academic world. A statue of him was erected in Brune in 1910.

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