Guiana Space Center

Article

January 19, 2022

The Guiana Space Center (French: Center spatial guyanais, CSG) is a French space station located in Kourou, French Guiana, South America. It has been in use since 1968 and is used by the European Space Agency (ESA), the French Space Agency (CNES), and Arianespace.

History

ESA has developed Ariane 5, a rocket for launching satellites, and Arianespace of France, the world's largest satellite launch service company, is carrying out about half of the world's civilian satellite launches. It has the most optimal conditions among space bases because it has an appropriate coastline structure that is open to all launch directions to polar orbit, east, and reverse inclination angles, and is very close to the equator at low latitudes.

Facilities

Kouru is located 500 km (310 mi) north of the equator. It is 5 degrees north latitude. In obtaining propulsion from the Earth's rotation, the equator has an advantage in launching space rockets. For example, the Earth's rotation speed at the Guiana Space Center is 463 m/s, while at 28 degrees north latitude, Cape Canaveral, USA, is 406 m/s. This means that if a space rocket is launched from Cape Canaveral, an additional 60 m/s acceleration is required to reach low-Earth orbit.

ELA-1

Launcher 1 was built in the 1960s. It is located at 5.236°N and 52.775°W. Europa-II rocket fired once. The launch pad was then demolished and a new one was built to launch Aryan rockets. Ariane 1, Ariane 2 and Ariane 3 rockets were launched until 1989. In November 2001, the launch pad was renamed to ELV pad. It was used as a launch pad for Vega (rocket). It was first launched on 13 February 2012. The Europa-II rocket is 33 m long and the Vega (rocket) is 30 m long, similar to the Naro 33 m. In other words, it can be inferred that it is similar to the launch pad No. 1 of the Naro Space Center.

ELA-2

The Guiana launcher 2 is called the ELA-2 pad (French: Ensemble de Lancement Ariane 2). It means Aryan Launcher 2. It is located at 5.232°N and 52.776°W, and until 2003 it had launched an Ariane 4 rocket.

ELA-3

The Guiana launcher 3 is called ELA-3 (French: Ensemble de Lancement Ariane 3) and is in use as of 2020. It has been an Ariane 5 rocket launch site since 1996. It is located at 5.239°N and 52.768°W. It covers an area of ​​21 square kilometers.

ELA-4

The Guiana launcher 4 is called ELA-4 (French: Ensemble de Lancement Ariane 4) and is currently under construction. It plans to launch an Ariane 6 rocket in the future. It is located at 5.26258°N 52.79074°W.

ELS

The French: Ensemble de Lancement Soyouz (ELS) launch pad was built to launch Russian Soyouz-2 rockets. After several delays, it was first launched on October 21, 2011.

Final Assembly Facility

This is the final assembly plant for the Ariane 5 rocket. It is 2.8 km away from the ELA-3 launch pad. It takes about an hour to transport the rocket to the launch pad and complete the installation.

Our Star No. 1

On August 11, 1992, Korea's first artificial satellite, Wooribyul-1, was launched from the Guiana Space Center. Wooristar 1 is an ultra-small science satellite with a weight of 48.5 kg and a size of 35.2 X 35.6 X 67 cm. South Korea became the 22nd country in the world to have satellites. It was launched as an auxiliary satellite along with France's S80/T satellite, next to the space where the US's 3 ton ocean observation satellite, Topex, was launched. It was launched with an Ariane 4 rocket.

External Links

Center Spatial Guyanais official site Archived 3 Jun 2008 - Wayback Machines Europe's Spaceport Archived 2012-06-30 - WebCite - Information from ESA Europe's Spaceport - Information from Arianespace List of Stratospheric Balloons launched from CSG - Information from StratoCat

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