Qur'an

Article

August 20, 2022

The Qur'an (Arabic: القرآن, cultural language: Qur'an) is a collection of records that Muhammad received from Allah for 23 years after the year 610 orally, and the disciples who received his teachings collected and compiled the records that were recorded in various places and over different periods of time. The message is said to have been first received by Muhammad at the age of 40 through the angel Jibril in the dark blood of Mount Hira, now in Saudi Arabia. The Qur'an is a noun derived from the verb kara'a (قَرَأَ, to read), meaning 'to read'. When the Qur'an was revealed and taught, the disciples recorded it on camel bones, palm fronds, parchment, etc. The Grand Caliph Usman ibn Afan organized the Qur'an Gathering Committee and finally completed the compilation. In this process, the writing method was unified in the language of the Quran, and the orthodox text was dispatched with Hafiz, the reciter, to various places of Islam to spread. It is also called 'imambon' or 'usmanbon' otherwise. The Qur'an in use today is based on this canon. From the end of the 9th century, the vowel symbol tashkil (تشكيل) began to be used and it may be different depending on the reading method and grammar according to the rhyme, but the content is the same.

History

According to the standard of Islamic traditional view of history, the Qur'an is the third scripture that inherits the traditions of Judaism and Christianity. This view of history helped to establish Islam as a popular religion along with Christianity and Judaism in Western Asia. At the same time, the view that the unique identity and values ​​of Islam may be diluted if the Qur'an is merely a succession of the revelations of Judaism and Christian scriptures has led to a movement to sanctify the Qur'an. In order to secure the authority of the Qur'an, the hypothesis that Muhammad was illiterate is also from this perspective. In order to assert the authority that the Qur'an was the work of God, Muhammad's role in the writing process of the Qur'an is excluded and emphasized only as a human aspect. The establishment of the Qur'anic miracle (إعجاز القرآن) and the theory of illiterate prophets is explained in this historical context. At the beginning of the 8th century, philosophical discussions regarding the explanation of the attributes of God were conducted in Islam. The debate over the real existence of the eternal divine attributes used in the description of God led to a debate about the nature of the Qur'an. The question of whether the Qur'an was created by the word of God or existed before creation proceeded as a discussion of the properties of the Qur'an. This discussion stems from the fact that Muslim theology was influenced by the Christian Trinity as Muslims came into contact with Christianity after conquering Syria in 635 and later with Christians. For example, things (معاني) and qualities (صفت), which are the attributes of God in Islam, are the Arabic translations of the Son and the Holy Spirit in the Trinity. Apart from the discussion of whether the various characteristics of God referred to in the Qur'an are real, the discussion on whether the Qur'an existed before the revelation of Muhammad is that the Qur'an existed in heaven even before the revelation of Muhammad and that it was preserved and transmitted in writing. becomes an opinion. Modern Judaism takes the view that the Torah was pre-existing and created later.