Dutch government in exile
The Dutch Government in Exile (Dutch: Nederlandse regering in ballingschap) or London Cabinet (Dutch: Londens cabinet) was a Dutch government in exile who fled to London after the Battle of the Netherlands during World War II, led by Queen Wilhelmina. After Germany withdrew from the Netherlands in May 1945, he returned to his home country.
Background and Exile
Before 1940, the Netherlands remained neutral. However, after the German invasion of the Netherlands in May 1940 Wilhelmina fled to London and the government led by Prime Minister Dirk Jan der Heyr withdrew to England the next day. The government was established at Stratton House in the Piccadilly district opposite Green Park in London. Initially, they wanted the French to liberate the Netherlands after reorganization. However, after the withdrawal of Dunkirk, their hopes were shattered when it became clear that the Allies had been defeated in the Siege of France.
The Dutch government in exile soon found itself in a dilemma. After France's defeat, Vichy France cooperated with Nazi Germany. This caused a dispute between Prime Minister The Heyr and the Queen. Prime Minister De Heyr returned to the Netherlands and tried to form a cooperative government like France. The Dutch East Indies were still governed by governments in exile, and the region was the second only oil producer to the Netherlands in exile after the United States and the Soviet Union. Wilhelmina believed that if the Netherlands cooperated with Germany, the Dutch East Indies would also surrender to the Japanese Empire, like French Indochina.
Exile in London
In the Netherlands, hopes for homeland restoration were high because the United States or the Soviet Union participated in the war in 1941, and the Queen distrusted Prime Minister De Heyr and dismissed him. The Queen appointed Winston Churchill and Attorney General Pieter Schurz Herbrandi, who had worked with Franklin Roosevelt, as new Prime Minister. Aruba and Curacao were then Dutch colonies and were home to world-class export refineries. Aruba was a British protectorate from 1940 to 1942 and later a United States protectorate. On November 23, 1941, Suriname became a U.S. protectorate, with the support of the Dutch government in exile, on condition that Suriname's oil refineries be protected. it started. On September 5 of the same year, this Customs Union Agreement was signed at the London Customs Agreement. In 1946 the Dutch Parliament justified these activities of the Queen. Winston Churchill praised her queen that she was the only man in the Dutch government.