The Nobel Prize in Literature (Swedish: Nobelpriset i litteratur; English: Nobel Prize in Literature) was established in 1901 in accordance with the will of Alfred Nobel to be awarded "to the most remarkable contribution to the field of literature in an ideal direction". This award is given annually to one of the world's writers from the beginning of the year: (Swedish: den som inom litteraturen har producerat det utmärktaste i idealisk riktning). Occasionally, a particular author's work is notable, but "contribution" here refers to the entire work written by an author. The Swedish Academy decides who will receive the prize in a given year, and the names of the winners are announced in early October. This award is one of five Nobel Prizes, established in 1895 according to the will of Alfred Nobel. Other Nobel Prizes include the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, the Nobel Prize in Physics, the Nobel Peace Prize, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and the Nobel Prize in Economics.
The Nobel Prize for Literature is awarded to the author, not the work.
A common misconception that accompanies the translation of a 'literary' award is that it is sometimes questioned as to whether it was awarded to a historian or philosopher. This is because Literature is not a word limited to literature, but is about 'the act of writing' in general, as evidenced by the fact that its etymology is Latin literra (letter, letter), which is why philosophers and historians such as Bergson and Mommsen have developed their eloquent style. It is possible to receive this award as a ideology and ideology. However, since the middle of the 20th century, awards are usually limited to literary scholars.
In the early days, the award was decided by interpreting the criteria of the ideal specified by Nobel as a narrow discussion of literary idealism, but as time passed, the standard as an 'ideal' in a broader sense was gradually applied.
In 1914 and 1918, awards were suspended due to World War I, and in 1935 there were no awards for other reasons. From 1940 to 1943, the awards ceremony was withheld due to World War II.
Boris Pasternak, who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1958, declined the award due to oppression by Soviet authorities, and in 1989 his son received his Nobel Prize for Literature in Stockholm, Sweden. Jean-Paul Sartre, who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1964, declined the award.
In 2018, the selection of winners was put on hold in the aftermath of the #MeToo scandal at the Swedish Academy. Accordingly, the Swedish Academy announced the winners of the 2018 Nobel Prize in Literature and the 2019 Nobel Prize in Literature at the same time in 2019.