Nucleotides are molecules that make up nucleic acids. In addition, nucleotides play a pivotal role in metabolism. Due to its capacity, it is a supplier of chemical energy (ATP) and also acts as an important component of intracellular signaling and enzymatic reactions.
It consists of a base-pentose-phosphate bond as follows.
Base: DNA consists of adenine, guanine (consisting of two pentagonal and hexagonal rings; purine series), cytosine, and thymine (consisting of only one hexagonal ring; pyrimidine series). In RNA, uracil is used instead of thymine go in
Sugar: A pentose sugar made up of 5 carbons. DNA is made of deoxyribose and RNA is made of ribose.
Phosphoric acid: H3PO4, but usually in a nucleic acid molecule, two oxygens each bind to sugar, and a metal ion (usually a magnesium divalent ion) is attached to the remaining two oxygens. Because of this phosphoric acid, the nucleic acid has strong acidity. Also, the nucleotides made with adenine are made into a cyclic shape and used for intracellular signal transduction, and ATP with three phosphate groups attached in a row is used as an energy source in living things.
Nucleotide names are indicated by a four-letter code. The first letter indicates whether it is a ribonucleotide (r) or deoxyribonucleotide (d), and the second letter indicates the type of base in the nucleic acid:
U: Uracil - absent in DNA. In RNA, it replaces thymine in DNA. The third and fourth letters indicate the number of phosphate groups (Mono-, Di-, Tri-) and the presence or absence of phosphate groups (P). For example, deoxy-cytidine-triphosphate is an abbreviation dCTP.
A nucleoside is a compound in which a purine base or a pyrimidine base and a monosaccharide RNA ribose or DNA deoxyribose are combined. It is obtained by decomposing nucleic acids in all living things. A nucleotide is formed through a phosphodiester linkage or phosphodiester bond with nucleosides.