East Timor


May 29, 2022

Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (Tetum: Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Lorosa'e, Portuguese: República Democrática de Timor-Leste, English: Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste), abbreviated East Timor (Tetum: Timór Lorosa'e, Portuguese: Timor-Leste Timor-Leste) ) is a republic located on the island of Timor in Southeast Asia. Geographically, it consists of the eastern part of Timor Island, the border between Oceania and Asia, and a part of the northern part of West Timor, and the adjacent island area.


From 1520 to 400 years under Portuguese rule. In 1702, Timor-Leste became a Portuguese colony. When Indonesia gained independence in 1945, West Timor was automatically incorporated into Indonesia. On November 28, 1975, Timor-Leste declared independence from Portugal at the Revolutionary Front. Forced occupation by Indonesian troops on December 7, 1975. In 1976, Indonesia's 27th province was forcibly incorporated into East Timor. During the occupation period, Indonesia tried to take permanent control of East Timor, including a policy of annihilation. The guerrilla movement of independence activists including Shanana Guzman, the first president of Timor-Leste, begins. In 1998, Indonesia's Suharto dictatorship collapsed, and Baharudin Yussup Habibi became Indonesia's new president. January 1999 President Habibi recognizes East Timor's autonomy. Timor-Leste's independence was decided through a referendum held by the United Nations in August 1999 (80% in favor of independence). Indonesian troops withdrew from Timor-Leste. In March 2000, the Provisional Government of Timor-Leste (ETTA) was established. Independence from Indonesia on 20 May 2002.

Natural Environment


It is located 1 hour 50 minutes by plane from Bali, Indonesia and 1 hour from Darwin, Australia. East Timor occupies the eastern part of Timor Island and the western part of Timor Island, which is surrounded by several islands controlled by Australia and Indonesia.


Timor-Leste is divided into a dry and a wet season. The dry season is from April to October and the wet season is from October to April of the following year. The highest temperature in the middle of the day is over 35 degrees Celsius, and in the afternoon, intermittent showers cool the hot land.

Administrative division

The capital of Timor-Leste is Dili, and the administrative division is made up of 13 counties.


It is a republican system that adopts a dual government system. The composition of the National Assembly is adopted as a unicameral system, and the number of members of the National Assembly is 65. The main political parties are the East Timor Independent Revolutionary Front (FRETILIN) and the Timor Reconstruction National Congress (CNRT). The current president is José Hamushorta, who was elected in the 2022 presidential election. The current prime minister is former president Taur Matan Luak.

Population and Population

Most of the inhabitants are Malay. Others include Chinese, Indians, and Hafcastes (mixed Portuguese and Malays). The main ethnic groups are Malays, Portuguese, and Tetums, with some descendants of Arabs and Papuans. Due to the influence of Indonesian rule, there are many Malays.


Tetum and Portuguese are the official languages. Portuguese is spoken because of Portuguese domination, in fact many people speak Portuguese. Timor-Leste's national anthem has only Portuguese lyrics, but no Tetum lyrics. Portuguese is Tetum�