Vatican City


May 29, 2022

Vatican City State (Latin: Status Civitatis Vaticanæ Stato della Città del Vaticano [*]), abbreviated Vatican City (Latin: Civitas Vaticana Civitas Vaticana[*]) *], Italian: Città del Vaticano Città del Vaticano[*]), or Vatican, is a landlocked state and city-state located in the city of Rome, Italy, consisting of a walled area serving as a border. Vatican City, which includes the Vatican Hill and the Vatican Plain to the north of the hill, covers an area of ​​0.44 km2 and has a population of about 852, and is a very small independent country in terms of area and population. Compared to the administrative divisions of the Republic of Korea, the area of ​​Vatican City is the same as the area of ​​Sanggye 5-dong. It is known as the smallest country in the world. It is about 1/6 of the area of ​​Yeouido in Seoul and is similar to Boramae Park in Seoul. Previously, there was a Papal States (756-1870), which occupied the central part of the Italian peninsula centered on Rome, but it was forcibly annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century. . Vatican City achieved independence with the signing of the Lateran Treaty on February 11, 1929, which aimed to restore the Papal States, and continues to this day. It is a kind of theocratic state ruled by the Pope and is the headquarters of the Roman Catholic Church worldwide. Most of the civil servants in Vatican City are clergy or religious. In international relations, it is called the constellation (Sancta Sedes).


The name 'Vatican' was coined in the period before the establishment of Christianity, and it is derived from the Latin 'Mons Vaticanus' meaning Vatican Hill. The territory of Vatican City is the plain of the Vatican Hill in the northwestern part of Rome, on which buildings such as St. Peter's Basilica, the Apostolic Palace, the Sistine Chapel, and the Vatican Museums were built. This area was part of the Borgo district of Rome until 1929. It was divided from the city of Rome when Leo IV built a long wall on the western shore of the Tiber to prevent intrusion from outside, and later, including the walls of Leo IV, Paul III, Pius IV, and Urban 8 The area was further expanded thanks to the newly built fortress of Sega. With the signing of the Treaty of Laterano in 1929, the Italian government designated the territory of the Vatican as a boundary bordered by a ring line, giving it its present form. Some border areas had no walls, instead lined with certain buildings, and modern walls were built in small parts of the border. Since St. Peter's Square, included in the Vatican's territory, is impossible to isolate from the rest of Rome, the Italian government and the Vatican generally view the area of ​​Pius XII outside St. Peter's Square as an imaginary boundary. In front of St. Peter's Square, it leads to the Via della Conciliazione (Road of Reconciliation) that leads to the River Tiber, and this magnificent road was built by Benito Mussolini to commemorate the signing of the Treaty of Laterano. In addition, according to the Treaty of Laterano, the Vatican can claim certain property rights in Italian territory, among which the most representative ones are Castel Gandolfo and Archbishops' churches, as well as offices and offices belonging to the Holy See scattered throughout Rome and Italy. enjoys extraterritorial rights similar to that of foreign embassies. The facilities designated as Castel Gandolfo and the Great Crusade are regularly patrolled by the police.