Battle of Bannockburn

Article

July 6, 2022

The Battle of Bannockburn was fought over two days, from 23 to 24 June 1314, during the War of Scottish Independence, when Scottish forces led by King Robert I of Scotland fought at Bannockburn, Stirling, Scotland, in England, led by Edward II, King of England. It was a battle that prevented an army invasion. It was 14 years later that Scotland became officially independent, but it is remarkable that the victory at Bannockburn contributed greatly. In 1313, King Robert I did not want to lose his estate to supporters still loyal to the deposed Scottish King John Balliol. Otherwise, he demanded the recognition of Robert I as king. Also, the commander of Stirling Castle, occupied by the English at the time, had made an agreement with King Robert I to surrender to Scotland if the siege was not lifted by 24 June 1314. For this reason, Edward II invaded Scotland with 25,000 men and 2,000 heavy cavalry men. The Scots had 6,000 men, and King Robert I divided them into three Scyltrons, each led by himself, his brother Edward Bruce, and his nephew Thomas Randolph. Killed by the ax of three, the English retreated into the night. On this day, King Robert I, hearing about the location of the English base and the atmosphere due to low morale from the English army deserters, planned an all-out offensive with his Skilltron. In the round that followed, the Scots won by defeating key English commanders including Gilbert de Claire and Robert de Clifford. The victory at Bannockburn is one of the most celebrated battles in Scottish history and has been celebrated in poetry and art for centuries. In 1964, the exact location of the battle is uncertain, but a monument to the battle was erected where it is believed to have taken place. Flowers of Scotland, the de facto national anthem of Scotland, written and composed in the 1960s by Roy Williamson, was recorded on this ship. It deals with the victory in the Battle of Knockburn.

Background

The First War of Scottish Independence between Scotland and England began in 1296. At the beginning of the war, under the command of King Edward I, the English army prospered at the Battle of Dunbar and the capture of Berwick. The abdication of King John Balliol of Scotland also contributed to the English victory. The Scots defeated the English at the Battle of Stirling Bridge in 1297, but the English, led by Edward I, counterattacked at the Battle of Falkirk. Scotland was completely occupied in 1304, but wars began again when Robert I took the Scottish throne in 1306. After Edward I's death, his son Edward II ascended to the throne in 1307, but his father's leadership was insufficient. His position was also shaken. In 1313, King Robert I demanded the allegiance of the remaining supporters of Baliol and the surrender of the English fortress of Stirling Castle, saying that if they refused, their estates would have been taken away. Stirling Castle was one of the main strongholds of the English army, as it controlled the route to the Highlands to the north. The castle was besieged in 1314 by Edward the Bruce, brother of Robert I, and an agreement was reached that they would surrender to the Scots if the siege was not lifted by 24 June 1314. England could not ignore this and prepared an expedition to Scotland. King Edward II traveled to England, Wales and Ireland for this expedition.