Bolivia

Article

August 12, 2022

Bolivian Multinational (Spanish: Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia) or Bolivia (Spanish: Bolivia Bolivia[*], Quechua: Buliwya Buliya, Aymara: Wuliwya Uliuya, Guarani: Volívia Bolivia) is a landlocked country in central South America, with the administrative capital of La Paz and the judicial capital of Sucre. Bolivia borders Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, Chile and Peru, and is located in the upper reaches of the Amazon River. The former official name was the Republic of Bolivia (Spanish: República del Bolivia [*]), but it was changed to the official name of the country as it is today due to the constitutional amendment in February 2009. Prior to European colonial rule, Bolivia was part of the Inca Empire, the largest country in pre-Columbian America. In the 16th century, the Spanish Empire conquered the area. During the Spanish colonial period, the region was called "Upper Peru" or "Charcas" and was ruled by the Viceroyalty of Peru, which encompassed most of Spain's South American colonies. After the declaration of independence in 1809, the war continued for 16 years until the establishment of a republic on August 6, 1825. The country's name, Bolivia, was named after the independence hero Simon Bolivar. The country's geography varies from the Andes in the west to the eastern lowlands in the Amazon Basin. Bolivia is a developing country, with a middle score on the Human Development Index, with a poverty rate of about 60%. The main economic activities are agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, and the textile, clothing, metal smelting and petroleum refining industries. Bolivia has a population of 10.6 million and is a multi-ethnic nation of Native Americans, Europeans, Asians and Africans. Spanish is the predominant language, but Aymara, Quechua and Guarani are also widely spoken. Bolivia's diverse culture shows a wide diversity in art, food, literature and music.

History

Between 1500 BC and 250 BC, Chilean culture flourished. The period from the 5th to the 12th century saw the flourishing of the Tihuanaco culture. From the 12th century to 1470, several kingdoms, including Aymara, flourished on the shores of Lake Titicaca. From 1470 to 1532, several kingdoms of Aymara were based in Cusco. Tawantingsyu (Inca) was incorporated into Korasyu with the conquests of the Quechua-speaking emperors Pachacuti and Tupac Inca Yupanki. Several kingdoms of Aymara continued within the Inca Empire.

Spanish colonial period

In 1532, when the Inca emperor Atahualpa was executed by the Spanish conquistadors, the Inca Empire collapsed and Spain's colonial era began. The Viceroyalty of Peru was established in 1535 by Francisco Pizarro. Diego de Almagro's expeditionary force explores Alto Peru. In 1538 Gonzalo Pizarro's army expedition to Alto Peru and colonized the area with the surrender of Aya's last commander. 1540 The city of La Plata is founded. In 1545, the Potosi silver mine was discovered, and since then, many mines have been found in Peru and other regions, and many Indians have been subjected to forced labor. In 1548 Alonso de Mendoza founded La Paz near Lake Titicaca. 1559 Audiencia is installed in Charukas (now Sucre). From this time until independence, the current Bolivia region was called "Alto Peru (Higher Peru to Peru)". 1559 Eastern