biology

Article

January 26, 2022

Biology is a natural science that studies life phenomena and the physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development and evolution of living organisms. Despite the complexity of science, there are certain common concepts that unite it into one coherent discipline. Biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, the gene as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as a means of propelling the emergence and extinction of species. A living organism is an open system that survives by transforming energy and partially reducing entropy to maintain a stable, life-sustaining state defined by homeostasis. There are biochemistry that studies chemical phenomena that occur in living things, molecular biology that investigates life phenomena that occur at the molecular level, cell biology that deals with life phenomena that occur in cells, physiology that studies organs and tissues, and various living organisms in the environment. ecology, which explores the relationship between Theoretical biology uses mathematical methods to build quantitative models, while experimental biology tests the validity of proposed theories, the mechanisms underlying life, and how life emerged from inanimate matter some 4 billion years ago. Conduct empirical experiments to understand how the complexity of biological systems has evolved in a progressively increasing direction.

History

The term biology comes from the Greek "βίος" (bios, "life", meaning "life") and the suffix "-λογία" (-logia, "study of", meaning "-science"). was derived The Latin form of the term biology first appeared in 1736, when the Swedish scientist Carl von Linnaeus used "biologi" in his book Bibliotheca botanica. The term biology was used again in 1766 in a book by Michael Christoph Hanov, a student of Christian Wolff, entitled Philosophiae naturalis sive physicae: tomus III, continens geologian, biologian, phytologian generalis. The first German use of the term "biology (German: Biologie)" was in a 1771 translation of Linnaeus's work. In 1797, Theodor Georg August Roose used the term "biology (German: Biologie)" in the preface to the book Grundzüge der Lehre van der Lebenskraft. Karl Friedrich Burdach used the term biology in the more limited sense of the study of humans from the point of view of morphology, physiology, and psychology in 1800. The term biology was used in a modern sense by the German naturalist and physician Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus in his book Biologie, oder Philosophie der lebenden Natur (6 volumes, 1802–1822). Although modern biology has been developed relatively recently, science related to and included in biology has been studied since ancient times. Natural philosophy was studied early in the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, India and China. However, the origins of modern biology and approaches to the study of nature mostly date back to ancient Greece. Although formal studies of medicine date back to Hippocrates (c. 460–370 BC), the most extensive contribution to the development of biology was Aristotle (384–322 BC). Of particular importance is Aristotle's History of Ani.

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