Sweden

Article

November 30, 2021

The Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish: Konungariket Sverige Hear Konungariket Sverige[*] ), abbreviated as Sweden (Swedish: Sverige Sverye[*], Cultural Language: Swerie) is a constitutional monarchy in the eastern part of Scandinavia in Northern Europe, and its capital is Stockholm. am.

History

Prehistory

Sweden's prehistory began with the Bromme Culture in the south around 12,000 B.C. in the Late Paleolithic, using stone tools, gathering tree nuts, and hunting reindeer and fish. In the Funnel-beaker Culture around 4000 BC, farming and domestication of livestock began, and polished stone axes and decorated earthenware were excavated as burials. The Bronze Age begins around 1700 BC, and since there is no copper in Scandinavia, metals from this period were imported and processed. People lived in small villages, with long single-story wooden buildings and farms.

Ancient

The first records of the Sveans (ancient Swedes) appear in Germania of Tacitus in 98 AD. During the Viking era, the Swedes seized the trade routes between the Byzantine Empire and the Islamic world, and carried out large-scale naval expeditions through this route. Although the Swedes had not embraced Christianity in Europe for quite some time, in the 11th century, Olof Shekkoyung was the first Swedish king to be baptized.

Middle Ages

At that time, Sweden was a federation of princes, and the monarchy had periodic elements of unrest due to the rivalry between rival dynasties, furthermore, the king and feudal princes. In 1397 Eric (Eric XIII) of Pomerania became king of Sweden-Norway-Denmark, ruling Sweden until 1439. Over the 80 years after his abdication, the regents of Sweden and the kings of Denmark became rivals for supremacy in the three kingdoms.

Modern

In 1523, Sweden gained independence from the Kalmar League after winning the Swedish War of Liberation against Denmark. As a result, the Kalmar Alliance was disbanded. Gustav I Vasa (reigned 1523-1560), who ascended to the throne as King of Sweden, established the lineage of the Vasa dynasty that continued until 1718 and enforced the Reformation to transition to Lutheranism. During the reign of his successors, Sweden faced great difficulties among Lutheran, Reformed and Roman Catholic churches. With the accession of Gustav II Adolf in 1611, Sweden returned to Lutheranism. Gustav II made the Baltic Sea a Swedish sea, and as a guardian of the German Protestant Church, he fart in the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648), but was shot dead in various parts of the body. The superpower Sweden (Swedish Empire or Baltic Empire) continued for about a century, but the war against Russia (1700-1721), which was conducted by Charles XII, ended in failure and was disbanded.

Modern

Afterwards, after a lull, Gustav III contributed a lot to the country's revival in the late 18th century, but was eventually assassinated and returned to the starting point. Sweden's last foreign war was the Napoleonic Wars, which resulted in the loss of Finland and Norway as a result of the Vienna Conference. After that, most of the large-scale military activities were not carried out, and it remained neutral. A constitutional monarchy was realized in 1849. Norway gained independence in 1905 and its present territory was established. It remained neutral during World War I, but during World War II, diplomat Raul Wallenberg provided visas to Jews in Hungary and allowed them to enter the country. In 1946 it became a member of the United Nations. Field hospital units in Korea during the Korean War

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