Al-Andalus refers to the medieval Muslim powers that occupied the present-day Iberian Peninsula. Although the name of the region refers throughout the Iberian Peninsula and parts of Septimania during various periods between 711 and 1492, the boundaries of the territory have undergone some changes due to war.
Conquest of the Iberian Peninsula by Muslims In 711 AD, Tariq ibn Ziyad, a Berber subordinate of Musa bin Nusayr (موسى بن نصيرالبلوي), governor of Ifrikiya (North Africa) of Umayyad Arabs, 7,000 Berbers. Immediately after arriving in Gibraltar with an army of soldiers, an additional 5,000 men were dispatched, resulting in an invasion of 12,000 men in total. The following year, Musa bin Nusair himself invaded with an army of 10,000 Arab soldiers, and the Visigoth kingdom was destroyed by these Muslim forces. At the time of 714, Muslims had controlled almost the entire Iberian Peninsula.
Residents of the Visigoths era and newly immigrated Arabs and Berbers participated, and the conversion of Iberians to Islam took place. Because of this, a social class called the Muladi was born in the Muslim group. Christians and Jews coexisted as dimmi, and Christians were also called Mosarabes.
Also, compared to the Visigoths era, the Jewish population increased rapidly because it was easier for Jews to enter society.
Latin continued from the time of the Roman Empire, and Arabic for Muslims, Romance for Christians, and Hebrew for Jews coexisted. Mosarabic, spoken by Christians, was influenced by Arabic and later on other Ibero-Romanse languages. With the spread of Arabic within the Mosarabe group, Arabic also came under the influence of the Romance language family, resulting in the Andalusian colloquial Arabic.
Muslims who settled on the Iberian Peninsula delivered the advanced agricultural technology of the Islamic world and made efforts to expand farmland through irrigation. Cotton, sugar cane, rice, peach, pomegranate, saffron, orange, apricot, grape, watermelon, melon, lemon, almond, olive, banana, carrot, pineapple, mango, mangosteen, date palm, plum, fig, lime, grapefruit Orient crops such as spinach, coco palm, quince, apple, rose, coffee, sesame, rubber, and papaya were transplanted.
The routes of al-Andalus (UNESCO website)