Estonia (Estonian: Eesti [ˈeːsʲti] Hear , cultural: Estonia) is located in northern Europe, bordered by the Baltic Sea to the north and west, Russia to the east, and Latvia to the south. The capital is Tallinn. Its official name is the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariik).
It declared independence during World War I, but was forcibly occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union in 1940. Fifty years later, independence movements including the Song Revolution and the Baltic Way and the dissolution of the Soviet Union restored sovereignty on August 20, 1991 and became a republic. It joined the European Union on 1 May 2008. Located in the northernmost part of the Baltic States, the glaciated land is low and flat. The climate is humid, and forests, wetlands, and pastures are very large. The ethnic composition is 65% Estonian. The official language is Estonian. Parliament is a unicameral system and is directly elected for a term of four years. It borders Finland and Sweden along the Baltic Sea. In Finland, Estonia is sometimes called "Viro".
Estonia has been the land of the Estonians, a Uralic people who speak the Finn-Ugrian language since ancient times, and also had relations with the Baltic people of Livonia. In the Middle Ages, it was conquered and Christianized in 1227 by the German Knights of Fratres militiae Christi's expedition to Livonia. Afterwards, it was ruled by Denmark, but as a result of the Swedish-Russian War in the 17th century, it was transferred to Sweden. From the 18th century, it was ruled by the Russian Empire. From the beginning of the 19th century, the era of nationalist revival called Ärkamisaeg began, and voices for national independence were raised.
After the fall of Tsarist Russia in the October Revolution, Estonia became an independent state on February 24, 1918. In 1934, Konstantin Päts, the first prime minister, launched a coup, and on August 23, 1939, the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany signed the Ribentrop-Molotov Secret Protocol, a secret protocol that divided Central Europe between Germany and the Soviet Union. In the same protocol when it was created, Estonia was recognized as being under Soviet sphere of influence. The Soviets occupied Estonia in mid-June 1940, and Soviet personnel of the People's Committee of the Interior raided Estonian border posts:20 expelled Estonian forces and replaced them with Soviet cadres:20 In the election for public officials, there was only one candidate on the list, but the election was held in the name of liberation from dictatorship, and in the official result of the election, the pro-Soviet candidate won 92.8% of the votes. Requested to join the Soviet Union, and with the approval of the Soviet Union, it was incorporated into the Soviet Union as the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic on August 6, 1940.:21 The international community criticized the Soviet annexation of the three Baltic States as illegal :117 Estonia was occupied by Nazi German forces from late June 1941 to 1944. Independence was restored on August 20, 1991 due to the Song Revolution and the collapse of the Soviet Union, and August 20 is designated as a national holiday in Estonia.
After the Soviet army left Estonia on August 31, 1994, Estonia made efforts to normalize relations with Western Europe, to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) on March 29, 2004 and to the European Union (EU) on May 1, 2004. The euro was adopted as the official currency on January 1, 2011. In 2012, Estonia introduced the world's first mobile phone voting system.