August 12, 2022

Nuclear weapons (核武器) is a generic term for weapons that kill or destroy using the vast amount of energy generated from nuclear fission. In the case of nuclear fission, it is also called atomic weapon or atomic weapon. Even the smallest nuclear weapons are more explosive than conventional bombs, and the largest can wipe out an entire city. Nazi Germany started making it first with their scientific power, but because of the spies of the Allied Powers, it could not be made due to lack of heavy water. Nuclear weapons have only been used in warfare only twice: Little Boy, a uranium bomb, dropped by the United States on Hiroshima, Japan on August 6, 1945, at the end of World War II, and plutonium, dropped on Nagasaki, on August 9, 1945 Fat Man is the bomb. The United States, the Soviet Union (now Russia), the United Kingdom, France, the People's Republic of China, India and Pakistan have conducted thousands of nuclear tests. The power of nuclear weapons is generally expressed in terms of the weight of a TNT bomb that can cause an explosion of the same size, such as 'has the power of hundreds of tons of TNT' or 'has an explosive power of more than 1 million tons of TNT'. For thermonuclear weapons designed in stages, such as the Teller-Ulam design, there is no limit to the theoretically possible nuclear output as long as there is sufficient nuclear material. However, if the scale of nuclear output increases, the mass and size of the warhead will also increase that much, making it difficult to transport, and since nuclear weapons with a power far exceeding that of destroying the target do more harm than good, considering tactical and strategic utility, nuclear weapons with excessive nuclear output is not designed for practical use.

History of nuclear tests

It was conducted on July 16, 1945, 60 miles northwest of Alamogordo, New Mexico, and named the Trinity Test. On August 6, 1945, four B-29 heavy bombers named 'Enola Gay' dropped the first uranium-235 bomb, Little Boy, on Hiroshima, an industrial city in Japan, killing 200,000 people and destroying 60,000 houses. . 12 km2 devastated by storms and fires. On August 9, 1945, the United States dropped the plutonium 239 Fat Man on Nagasaki City. 14,000 people died. On August 29, 1949, the Soviet Union successfully tested the first atomic bomb. On November 1, 1952, the first successful test of a hydrogen bomb in the United States. On 3 October 1952, Britain's first atomic bomb was successfully tested on the Montebello Islands. On August 12, 1953, the Soviet Union successfully tested the first hydrogen bomb. In 1954, a 3F bomb with an outer shell of a hydrogen bomb wrapped in uranium 238 (238U) was developed in the United States, and the first test was conducted at Bikini Atoll. 1957 Britain's first successful hydrogen bomb test. During the four years of 1958-1962, the United States conducted seven nuclear tests and the Soviet Union conducted four nuclear tests in outer space. On February 13, 1960, France succeeded in testing the first atomic bomb in the Sahara Desert. 1961 The Soviet Union conducts the Tsar Bomba experiment. The power of this hydrogen bomb is 50 million tons (50 megatons) of TNT, which is the highest among nuclear bombs so far. In 1964, the People's Republic of China successfully tested the first atomic bomb. 1967 China's first hydrogen bomb On August 23, 1968, France succeeded in testing the first hydrogen bomb.

Advances in Nuclear Weapons

Nuclear weapons have been developed and developed as a top priority in strategic and tactical terms. The subject of interest was the destructive power of nuclear warheads and CEP in particular, and it had a significant meaning in view of the relative weakening of the conventional air defense system or early warning system. The nuclear warhead was based on the destructive power of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, and its explosive power was 20 kilotons. The current nuclear warhead is a fission/fusion type, and the Soviet SS-9 is a single-nuclear warhead.