Jew

Article

August 20, 2022

Jews (Singular: Hebrew: יְהוּדִי Yehudi, Jewish; plural: Hebrew: יְהוּדִים Jehudim, Jews) or Jews; Jews are an ethnic, religious, and cultural group that originates from the Hebrew people. For Jews, Jewish ethnicity and religion are very closely related because Judaism is the traditional belief of the Jewish people. Converts to Judaism usually have an equal status in Jewish society with those who were born Jewish. In mainstream Judaism, conversion is not recommended and considered difficult. This mainly applies to marriages between Jews and non-Jews. According to the Bible, the Jewish people descended from Abraham, the patriarch of ancient Canaan. They migrated to Egypt in the time of Joseph and became a slave nation. After the Exodus, they settled again in Canaan and established the kingdom of Israel. Afterward, the area of ​​Judah was ruled by Babylonia and Persia before entering the territory of the Roman Empire. Jews who migrated to Europe have been living with their identity for a long time without assimilation. Even in the Middle Ages, the majority were not assimilated and suffered discrimination, which led them to engage in finance, commerce, and trade, which were considered lowly or sinful, and on the contrary, it became an opportunity for Jews to accumulate capital. Discrimination persisted even in modern times, and at the end of the polarization of European politics, the Holocaust Holocaust led by Nazi Germany resulted in the death of a majority of European Jews and mass emigration to the United States, Britain, and Israel. The modern state of Israel was established as a Jewish state, and the Basic Law also defines itself as a Jewish state, so the Law of Repatriation authorizes all Jews who require Israeli citizenship to acquire citizenship. Currently, Israel is the only country where Jews make up the majority of the population.

History

Ancient

According to the Old Testament, the ancestry of the nation of Israel can be traced back to the biblical patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and their wives, Sarah, Rebekah, Leah, and Rachel, who lived in and around Canaan around the 18th century BC. Jacob moved to Egypt with his family at the invitation of the Pharaoh so that they could live together in the Goshen region with his son, Joseph, who was then a high priest in Egypt. However, the descendants of these patriarchs later became slaves to Egypt and later escaped Egypt under the leadership of Moses. The time of the Israelites' exodus at this time is usually considered to be the 13th century BC. The Hebrews who settled in Canaan again established an independent state twice in ancient times. The first period is the period of the judges and the subsequent united kingdom, after Saul, David, and Solomon, the territory is divided into Israel and Judah. Northern Israel was destroyed by Salmaneser V of Assyria in the 8th century BC, and Nebuchadnezzar II, king of Neo-Babylonia, besieged Jerusalem in 587 BC, destroyed the First Temple, and expelled the ruling class in southern Judah. In 586 BC, Judah became part of Neo-Babylonia, and the remaining Jews in Judah lost their kingdom. The Babylonian exile ended in 539 B.C.E. when the Persians conquered Babylon and allowed the exiled Jews to return to Judah and rebuild the temple. Construction of the Second Temple was completed in 515 BC. fer