gene

Article

January 19, 2022

Gene (遺傳子, English: gene) is the basic unit of heredity. All living things on Earth have genes. Genes contain the information necessary to construct and maintain the cells of living things and to form organic relationships between them, and are passed on to offspring through reproduction. In modern genetics, a gene is defined as "a segment at a specific location in a genomic sequence that constitutes a unit of hereditary trait". In the genomic sequence, a gene forms a part of the DNA sequence and consists of a regulatory section, a transcription section, and a section to which other functions are conferred. In general, a gene is often used synonymously with an allele, but in a strict sense, an allele is a type of genetic trait expressed by a gene sequence. The concept of a gene has undergone many changes with the development of genetics. Gregor Mendel, the founder of genetics, found that genetic traits inherited from parents were statistically predictable. He simply called it a trait. Afterwards, Mendel's traits were given the name "genes", but when DNA was discovered in the 1950s, the material basis of genes was elucidated. All living things are born with various genetic traits due to genes. Certain genetic disorders are also inherited, including things like eye color and blood type. In addition, thousands of biochemical actions involved in life activities are also based on genes. In very few cases, genetic information is erroneously copied and mutated during the interphase of the cell cycle. In a cell, a gene is a part of a DNA sequence that contains information. Most of the DNA consists of a random sequence without information, which is called an uncoding DNA sequence. 99% of the human genome corresponds to uncoding DNA sequences. On the other hand, 80% of the non-coding DNA of mice is homologous to that of humans. This suggests that the two species differentiated from a common ancestor in the course of evolution. In contrast, a gene can be referred to as a "encoded DNA sequence". Gene expression is the expression of genetic traits through the process of transcription (biology), etc., which is carried out by the gene. Gene expression is achieved through the development and growth of an individual. In this case, the interaction between the individual and the natural environment regulates the expression of genes. Characteristics expressed in an individual due to the influence of the natural environment in this way are called expression traits. Expression traits are not inherited.

History

In the 1850s, Gregor Mendel discovered Mendel's laws of inheritance through experiments with peas. The pea trial was conducted over a period of seven years. He called an individual whose genetic trait does not change over generations as a purebred, and an individual whose transformation occurs through crossbreeding of these purebreds as a hybrid. In the first generation of the hybrid, only one of the alleles of the two parents was expressed, which was called dominant, and the trait not expressed in the first generation was called recessive. Mendel discovered that even if recessiveness was not expressed in the first generation through a hybridization test, it did not disappear and that it was expressed again through the second and third generations, and that the frequency of expression could be expressed as a ratio according to a statistically clear law. As the discovery of this law, Mendel is called the father of modern genetics. In the early days, Mendel's discovery was not widely known, but in 1889, when Huiho Dufres published Intracellular Pangenesis, he introduced Mendel's theory and made it widely known. lose

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