genetics

Article

January 23, 2022

Genetics is a branch of biology that studies the genetics and genetic diversity of living things. Since prehistoric times, humans have been breeding breeders using the traits of living things that are inherited from parents to offspring. However, the first scientific method to study heredity was in the mid-19th century, when Gregor Mendel discovered the laws of heredity. He called what he now calls genes, genetic alleles. A key concept in modern genetics is the gene. A gene is an arrangement of nucleotide sequences constituting a certain section of DNA among the entire genome sequence. DNA is a combination of nucleotides in the form of a double helix, and genetic traits are transmitted to the next generation through DNA replication. In addition, the role of DNA in cells is to form proteins so that living things can grow and function. Each codon of messenger RNA transcribed from DNA corresponds to one amino acid, and a protein is formed by amino acids bound by the transcribed RNA. Proteins are the most important elements that make up living things, such as enzymes, muscles, and cytoplasm. In summary, modern genetics identifies the role of genes in the development, growth, and evolution of organisms, and provides genome and biological information through DNA recombination experiments. It is a broad field of science that explores Because it constitutes a very broad research field, modern genetics is subdivided into sub-disciplines such as population genetics, genomics, and evolutionary genetics. In addition, the knowledge of genetics has spread to many disciplines, and genetics has become an essential foundational knowledge in medicine and agriculture. Genetic engineering based on genetics knowledge is conducting research on drug development and breed improvement through genetic manipulation.

History

Mendel's laws of inheritance, published in the mid-19th century, received little attention. At that time, people's concept of heredity was mixed inheritance, in which the characteristics of both parents were mixed in the offspring. For example, a child of a red flower and a white flower becomes a pink flower. Of course, there are cases where the fertilized offspring appear as pink flowers between the actual white and red flowers. However, if the offspring appear only with white or red flowers, the mixed genetics theory could not give an answer. Mendel revealed the reason why the offspring appear only in one color by explaining that it is a combination of dominant and recessive factors, and proved this through experiments. Meanwhile, Lamarck explained the evolutionary theory according to his tolerance and tolerance, explaining what living things experience during their lifetime. trait changes were considered to be heritable. A famous example is the explanation of the long-standing giraffe's neck. As a result of the giraffe's continuing to pluck and elongate its neck to eat leaves from tall branches, the giraffe's offspring will be born with a longer neck. Until the discovery of Mendel's laws of inheritance, Lamarck's theory was accepted as one of the most appropriate evolutionary theories. Darwin, too, could not know more than Lamarck's theory as a genetic mechanism for evolution, and he thought, like Lamarck, that new characteristics appearing in a species are acquired while an individual is alive.

Mendelian and classical genetics

The term genetics was first used by Bateson in 1905 when he rediscovered Mendel's laws of inheritance. Bateson presented Mendel's laws of inheritance, which he had rediscovered, at the 3rd International Conference on Plant Hybridization held in London in 1906.

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