January 23, 2022
Genetics is a branch of biology that studies the genetics and genetic diversity of living things. Since prehistoric times, humans have been breeding breeders using the traits of living things that are inherited from parents to offspring. However, the first scientific method to study heredity was in the mid-19th century, when Gregor Mendel discovered the laws of heredity. He called what he now calls genes, genetic alleles. A key concept in modern genetics is the gene. A gene is an arrangement of nucleotide sequences constituting a certain section of DNA among the entire genome sequence. DNA is a combination of nucleotides in the form of a double helix, and genetic traits are transmitted to the next generation through DNA replication. In addition, the role of DNA in cells is to form proteins so that living things can grow and function. Each codon of messenger RNA transcribed from DNA corresponds to one amino acid, and a protein is formed by amino acids bound by the transcribed RNA. Proteins are the most important elements that make up living things, such as enzymes, muscles, and cytoplasm. In summary, modern genetics identifies the role of genes in the development, growth, and evolution of organisms, and provides genome and biological information through DNA recombination experiments. It is a broad field of science that explores Because it constitutes a very broad research field, modern genetics is subdivided into sub-disciplines such as population genetics, genomics, and evolutionary genetics. In addition, the knowledge of genetics has spread to many disciplines, and genetics has become an essential foundational knowledge in medicine and agriculture. Genetic engineering based on genetics knowledge is conducting research on drug development and breed improvement through genetic manipulation.