Medicine is the study of methods and technologies related to human health, treatment and prevention of diseases or injuries by examining the structure and function of the human body. It can be divided into basic medicine, clinical medicine, and social medicine. Modern medicine is not only 'clinical medicine' such as medication and surgery, but also 'basic medicine' such as anatomy and pathology, ' It covers a wide range of fields such as 'social medicine'.
Since prehistoric times, there have been medical practices to cure diseases. There is an opinion that the mural depicting the drilling of a skull painted in the Stone Age is magical, but it shows that there were surgical treatments such as surgery even in prehistoric times. In ancient Egypt, specialized treatments such as sutures were performed. Until the ancient society, diseases were treated as punishments from God or caused by evil spirits. Rational medicine began to treat diseases more objectively and find a cure based on Hippocrates' 《The Book of Hippocrates》 compiled in ancient Greece around 280 BC and the 《Emperor Naejing》 compiled during the Chinese Spring, Autumn and Warring States period. Since then, oriental medicine has continued to develop independently along with the development of pharmacology such as Li Si-jin's herbal medicine during the Ming Dynasty. In modern times, Donguibogam compiled by Heo Jun of Joseon was treated as an important medical book not only in Korea but also in China and Japan. In the Qing Dynasty, Donguibogam was printed in large quantities. Oriental medicine is still used today as a part of medical care like Chinese medicine and Korean medicine.
In medieval Europe, medicine was not treated as an independent field, but as a secondary task of several professions. Surgical treatments were often performed by barbers, and medicine and alchemy were not considered to be very different. The medical knowledge of ancient Greece and ancient Rome spread and developed into the Islamic world. Medieval Islamic medicine not only inherited ancient knowledge, including Galen, but also accumulated many independent knowledge and skills. They left behind the achievements of compiling scientific medical books based on research results that emphasized empirical methods. Medieval Islamic medicine spread to Europe during the Renaissance and had a great influence on the development of European medicine and science. In the 12th century, Ibn Sina, at the pinnacle of medicine, was called the king of doctors even in Europe. Ibn Sina's "Medical Canon" (القانون في الطب) was translated into Latin and spread to Europe, where it was used as a medical textbook for each university until the 17th century. Meanwhile, Al Rajii established a new medical system by accepting not only ancient Greek medical knowledge, but also medical achievements from Persia, India, and China. Al Rajii was the first in the world to accurately distinguish between measles and smallpox, and compiled the results of his lifelong research in pediatrics, surgery, and epidemiology, and wrote the 100-volume 《Medical Compilation》. His books were also translated into Latin and known in Europe. In the 18th century, under the influence of Enlightenment and naturalism, medical research by scientific method began to be actively conducted in Europe. Anatomy laboratories were prepared at each university, and understanding of the human body became essential for intellectuals at the time. On the other hand, with the invention of the microscope, direct observation of microorganisms and identification of pathogens led to the development of preventive technologies for infectious diseases such as vaccination of vaccines. Robert Koch is