Prime Minister of Japan


October 18, 2021

Prime Minister (Japanese: 内閣総理大臣 Naikaku Soridaijin[*] English: Prime Minister of Japan, abbreviation: PMOJ), also known as Prime Minister (総理大臣 Soridaijin[*]) or Prime Minister (Japanese: 首相) Shusho[*]) is the head of the Japanese government and the head of the Cabinet of Ministers of State. In accordance with the provisions of the Constitution of Japan, members of the National Assembly are appointed by a resolution of the National Assembly, and the Emperor appoints them. Qualifications are members of the National Assembly, but by convention, members of the House of Representatives and members of the House of Representatives are elected from among the members of the House of Representatives. The Japanese Prime Minister is currently the de facto supreme leader of Japan and has diplomatic, political, and military powers. The Cabinet is established based on the trust of the National Assembly and is responsible for the National Assembly (Cabinet Responsibility System). If the House of Representatives (House) passes a resolution of no confidence in the Cabinet, the general election must be held within 10 days by either the general resignation or the dissolution of the House of Representatives.


According to the Constitution of Japan, it is not more than 4 years. It is customary to appoint the president or representative of the ruling party, and when the ruling party has a majority seat, it is customary to appoint a new ruling party leader as the prime minister even if the legal term of office remains in place of the prime minister if the representative of the ruling party changes. As Japanese political parties impose limits on the term of office and term of office for the party leader, the actual term of office is often determined by the term of office of the party leader unless the ruling party changes.


The Prime Minister and other Ministers of State must be civilians (Article 66 (2) of the Constitution). The Prime Minister is appointed by the National Assembly from among the National Assembly members. This nomination takes precedence over all other matters (Article 67, Paragraph 1 of the Constitution). The Emperor appoints the Prime Minister on the basis of nomination by the National Assembly (Article 6 (1) of the Constitution).


Appointment and dismissal of the Minister of State (Article 68 of the Constitution) Consent to prosecution while serving as the Minister of State (Article 75 of the Constitution) Submitting bills to the National Assembly on behalf of the Cabinet (Article 72 of the Constitution) Reporting to the National Assembly on general state affairs and diplomatic relations on behalf of the Cabinet (Article 72 of the Constitution) Directing and supervising administrative departments on behalf of the Cabinet (Article 72 of the Constitution) To jointly sign laws and ordinances with the Chief Minister of State (Article 74 of the Constitution, both authority and duty) Presiding a Cabinet Meeting (Cabinet Law Article 4, Paragraph 2) Designation of the Prime Minister and the Chief Minister of State (Cabinet Act Articles 9 and 10) Able to wait for the Cabinet action after the disposition or order of each administrative department has been suspended (Cabinet Act Article 7, Right to Suspension) To issue a declaration of emergency (Article 71 of the Police Act) Police control at the time of proclamation (Article 72 of the Police Act) The supreme command and supervision of the Self-Defense Forces (Article 7 of the Self-Defense Forces Act) Ordering all or part of the Self-Defense Forces to mobilize in the event of an armed attack incident or a situation deemed imminent (SDF Act Article 76, Defense dispatch) Ordering all or part of the Self-Defense Forces to dispatch all or part of the Self-Defense Forces when it is recognized that it is difficult to maintain public order by ordinary police force in the event of indirect aggression or other emergencies (SDF Act Article 78, Police dispatch by order) Where there is an order to dispatch all or part of the Self-Defense Forces by means of a defense patrol or security mobilization, and when it is deemed that there is a special need, it is possible to place all or part of the Coast Guard under its control (SDF Act Article 80) . When the basic policy for coping with armed attack situations, etc. has been decided, the necessary authority is exercised as the head of the countermeasures headquarters of the “Military Attack Situation Response Headquarters” established in the Cabinet (Article 14 of the Act on the Security of Peace in Armed Attack Situations) In the event that necessary countermeasures are not implemented based on the comprehensive coordination of Article 14 above (in laws and regulations), the head of a local public entity as the Prime Minister, etc.

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