A constitutional monarchy is a form of government that recognizes a monarch who is hereditary or elected under the constitutional system. In other words, a constitutional monarchy is a system in which the power of a political monarch is limited by the constitution. Modern constitutional monarchies usually fulfill the concept of separation of powers, with the monarch acting as the head of state. Laws in a tyrannical monarchy in which the monarch has absolute power and laws in a constitutional monarchy are usually quite different.
Today's constitutional monarchy is almost always mixed with indirect democracy, and some argue that the sovereignty of the country belongs to the people. A monarch is the head of a country.
Although current constitutional monarchies are largely democratic, historically this has not always been the case. In some countries, such as Italy and Spain, where a monarchy and constitution coexisted, dictatorship of the powerful took place, and in Thailand, the government was under a military dictatorship.
In fact, compared to other countries, the Russian Empire and the German Empire, where the emperor and the nobles were all strong by preserving their power completely, were constitutional monarchs, and the British Empire and the Japanese Empire were also constitutional monarchs.
While some constitutional monarchies are hereditary, Malaysia, Cambodia and Vatican City have adopted electoral monarchies.
Outward constitutional system
The outward constitutional system is a form of government that takes the form of constitutional politics outwardly, but denies it in reality. The king has absolute power and guarantees the superiority of the administrative bureaucrats who exercise it. The legislative power rests with the people, and the parliament is subordinate to the king as an adjunct to the bureaucracy. This denies constitutionalism and conceals absolute monarchy. The Prussian Constitution of 1849 and the Meiji Constitution of Japan institutionalized it. In England, too, the content of the Glorious Revolution was that the king was greatly weakened, the nobles became weaker and the gentry became stronger, so the public did not even have the right to vote.
List of current constitutional monarchies
United Arab Emirates
Constitutional Monarchy of the Commonwealth of England
The Commonwealth Kingdom is one of the member states of the Commonwealth, where the King of England is the head of state.
St. Vincent and the Grenadines
st kitts and nevis
Antigua and Barbuda
Papua New Guinea
The lost constitutional monarchy
Nepal had originally adopted a constitutional monarchy, but due to the shooting of Crown Prince Dipendra, known as the Nepalese court massacre, Gyanendra became king. However, the people's opposition to this was very strong, and in the end, Nepal's parliament declared that the government would change to a republic in 2008, and the king was forcibly abdicated.
After independence in 1951, Libya was a constitutional monarchy.
After independence, Tunisia was a constitutional monarchy, but after a coup in 1957, it became a republic.
Fiji had a coup d'état in 1987 that adopted a constitutional monarchy in the Commonwealth.