natural science


January 19, 2022

Natural science is a system of knowledge that organizes the understanding of natural phenomena and is a branch of science.


Natural science refers to the process of pursuing general principles in a rational and logical way with human reason and the knowledge system obtained by that process. Therefore, in science, conclusions are important, but the process of drawing conclusions is even more important. The knowledge system obtained by science is inferred by empirical methods and is not an absolute truth. For example, Isaac Newton's classical mechanics may not be able to explain natural phenomena depending on the conditions. However, the experimental method of classical mechanics is still a field of natural science, and Newton's laws of motion are still valid under certain conditions. Science must always be open to counterexamples, since even a system of knowledge obtained through experimentation that faithfully follows the scientific method can be modified by other evidence. For a correct understanding of natural science, it is important to understand these limitations of science. Since prehistoric times, mankind has already lived a life based on various laws of nature. Making tools, using machines, using fire, etc. In ancient times, huge buildings were built and various technologies were developed. However, modern science using the scientific method began in post-renaissance Europe. The essence of the modern spirit is well documented by Galileo Galilei, who viewed nature as a “giant machine” above all and understood that “nature is written in mathematical language.” and the establishment of classical mechanics by the discovery of the laws of motion of Isaac Newton and Isaac Newton, the foundation of the current academic system was established. In other words, discovering the laws of nature through empirical experiments has become a characteristic of science.

Scientific Method

The scientific method is a research method based on experimental proof. In other words, it is a method of proving through argumentation and evidence, rather than making theoretical assumptions or explanations based on beliefs. In the natural sciences, various methods are used depending on the field of study, but the following methods are common. Observation - Observation is the investigation and recording of natural phenomena. The scientific method aims to find out what caused an observed phenomenon to occur. Measurement of temperature change and analysis of material composition are all observations. Hypothesis - A hypothesis is a guess about the cause of an observed phenomenon. Hypotheses before they are proved as arguments and evidence are not treated as scientific knowledge because they are intuitive and a priori. On the other hand, since scientific methods are judged based on experience, counterexamples can appear at any time. Since even widely accepted scientific knowledge can be denied or amended when counterexamples appear, in a strict sense, all laws of natural science can be said to be hypotheses. Prediction - Prediction is an attempt to predict a natural phenomenon according to a hypothesis. Experiment - Experiment is to simplify the phenomenon to be observed through appropriate control and measure and record whether it proceeds as expected. There are various experimental methods depending on the type of research. Proof - In the scientific method, proof is the process of arguing whether or not the prediction based on a hypothesis is correct based on the results of an experiment. In general, the right or wrong of a hypothesis is determined by comparing the experimental group and the control group based on the results of the experiment.

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