Liberal Democratic Party (Japan)

Article

May 29, 2022

The Liberal Democratic Party (Japanese: 自由民主党 Jiyuminshuto[*]; English: Liberal Democratic Party, LDP), abbreviated as the Liberal Democratic Party (Japanese: 自人党 Jiminto[*]), is a Japanese conservatism founded in 1955 by the merger of the Liberal Party and the Japanese Democratic Party. As of 2021, the current president is Fumio Kishida and the secretary is Toshimitsu Motegi. Since its establishment in 1955, it has continuously maintained its ruling party position in the House of Representatives, forming a two-party structure called the 55-year system with the opposition Japanese Socialist Party. The party system collapsed for the first time. However, even after re-establishing the cabinet in 1994, the following year, it has never lost its seat as the first party except for the period from 2009 to 2012, and its influence in the domestic political world is huge, such as continuously producing prime ministers. Members of parliament often belong to a certain faction within the party, which has a strong influence on the election of prime ministers and cabinet members.

Overview

It is a Japanese conservative party founded in 1955 as a "conservative joint" between the Liberal Party and the Japanese Democratic Party. The Ikchan Parliamentarians Federation, Ikchan Political Association, the Japanese Political Association, and the Dongguk Comrade, the National Liberation Party of Japan, the Japan Progressive Party, and the Japan Cooperative Party, which were critical of imperialism, were the origins of the Constitutional Association, the Constitutional Democratic Party, and were responsible for the core of the Japanese imperial system. This is considered the origin of the LDP. In this way, the LDP started as a coalition of the forces that led or succeeded Japanese imperialism and the conservative liberal forces that took a pro-American and anti-communist tendencies while showing a critical stance on imperialism. It was weak and instead, influential politicians formed "factions" composed of lawmakers each following him, and it was common for the party to be run through confrontation and alliances between factions. This is analyzed to be due to the fact that a political party has adopted the mid-term constituency system, in which multiple candidates must be nominated in one constituency, as an election system. It had to be a fighting rival. Also, because there were multiple candidates in a constituency, no single candidate could monopolize the central party's support for the election, so each candidate either formed a personal support group to secure the necessary funds for his or her campaign, or joined a faction of powerful politicians to join the political party. According to the will of , he chose to receive support from his faction every election. The factional politics formed in this way became a hotbed of plutocratic politics in which each other used money in elections to win the favor of voters. The LDP is a conservative, right-wing party, but under the 55-year regime, the government was more heavily involved in social and economic aspects compared to Western conservative regimes, and in economic matters, it is evaluated that it was rather close to social democracy. The LDP government implemented a policy to actively support companies in areas lacking competitiveness among various industrial fields, using authorizations and permits, etc. in administrative procedures, while the government manages all national economic policies. In addition, subsidies were issued to agricultural workers, and various public projects were carried out jointly by the government and local governments. With the evaluation that a series of policies promoted by such strong government intervention are viewed as pursuing "resolving the income gap" and "socializing risk", "Japan's post-war LDP system