messenger RNA


January 19, 2022

Messenger RNA (mRNA) acts as a 'blueprint' for RNA molecules to produce chemically encoded proteins. mRNA is transcribed from the DNA prototype, and is delivered to the ribosome, where protein synthesis takes place by assigning code (codon) to genetic information. This nucleic acid polymer translates the amino acids inside the protein polymer. Like DNA, in mRNA, genetic information determines the arrangement of nucleotides, and the codon alignment consists of three bases (chemical). Except for the stop codon (The stop codon has UAA, UAG, and UGA base sequences, unlike other codons, it does not encode a specific amino acid, so protein synthesis can be terminated.) Each codon encodes a specific amino acid, finish the synthesis. This process requires two types of RNA. There are transport RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Transport RNA accurately recognizes codons composed of bases in mRNA, and in the structure of tRNA that needs to transport specific amino acids, the anticodon of each tRNA is a base complementary to a codon in mRNA. After recognition by binding to the amino acid binding site, the amino acid specifically bound to the end of the amino acid binding site is supplied to the ribosome. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a component of proteins and rRNA constituting ribosomes. In eukaryotic cells, ribosomes are efficiently assembled with rRNA transcribed from nucleolus and ribosomal constituent proteins immediately to stabilize rRNA.

Transcription, Polymerization, and Termination

Short-lived messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules begin with transcription and finally degradation. During mRNA life, mRNA molecules perform translation processes that are more important than editing and transport. Eukaryotic mRNA molecules frequently require extensive processing and transport, whereas prokaryotic molecules do not.

Transcription (genetics)

During the transcription process, RNA polymerase creates mRNA by copying the required DNA gene. This process is similar to that of eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells. However, one sense is different: RNA polymerase (ααββ' core polymerase) of prokaryotic cells processes mRNA-processing enzymes during the transcription process. In the case of a short life, it is not treated or partially processed. If the untreated product is named as a term, “precursor-messenger RNA precursor-mRNA”, and if a product that is partially processed is named “maturity- messenger RNA mature-mRNA".

Eukaryotic maturation-processing of messenger RNA (mature-mRNA)

The processing of messenger RNA (mRNA) differs significantly between eukaryotes, bacteria, and archaea. "Non-eukaryotic" i.e. prokaryotic mRNA is

Processing of eukaryotic precursor-mRNA

The processing of mRNA differs significantly between eukaryotes, bacteria, and archaea. Non-eukaryotic mRNAs in essence mature upon transcription (as in the case of eukaryotic precursor-mRNA Eukaryotic pre-mRNA) and, with these rare exceptions, no processing is required. However, there are times when extensive machining is required.

RNA Polymerase

Prokaryotic RNA polymerase and eukaryotic RNA polymerase are not the same enzyme. Prokaryotic RNA polymerase uses ααββ' core polymerase, and eukaryotic RNA polymerase uses transcription factors (TF) to induce tissue-specific expression of various genes. promotes That is, true

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