James Webb Space Telescope

Article

January 19, 2022

The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST;) is the successor to the aging Hubble Space Telescope, a visible and infrared observation space telescope. The main purpose of this telescope is to observe celestial bodies such as exoplanets and stars hidden in cosmic dust in the deep universe, far away in the universe, which was not observed by telescopes installed on the ground or by the Hubble Space Telescope. The name JWST was created in collaboration with NASA, ESA, and SCA. The telescope was originally called the "Next Generation Space Telescope" (NGST), but was renamed in 2002 after James E. Webb, the second director of NASA. became After several delays, it was launched aboard an Ariane 5 rocket from the Guiana Space Center in French Guiana on December 25, 2021 at 9:20 pm (Korean time), and was successfully launched 27 minutes later from the top of the Ariane rocket. was separated into

Mission

The James Webb Space Telescope's primary mission is to study infrared (the cosmic microwave background) to study the early states of the presently observable universe. To achieve this purpose, the telescope will be equipped with a high-sensitivity infrared sensor and a spectrometer. To ensure that observations are not obstructed by infrared emissions from the telescope itself, the instruments will be placed in a cryogenic temperature of 40 Kelvin (−233.15 °C), and folded into small folds to avoid sunlight or light reflected from the Earth and the Moon. A shading plate will be attached. JWST does not revolve around the Earth like the Hubble Space Telescope, but is located at the L2 Lagrange point of the Sun-Earth 1.5 million km from Earth. will be able to perform However, since the Hubble Space Telescope is located in a relatively low orbit of 610 km from the Earth's surface, repair or replacement of parts is possible when there is a problem with the optical equipment, whereas the JWST has a disadvantage that this cannot be done due to its long distance. So if something goes wrong with the James Webb telescope, you have to observe the problem. Recently (2021) Elon Musk's SPACE X is developing a completely reusable spacecraft called STAR SHIP, which can operate a cargo hold with a payload of 100 tons and a diameter of 8 meters, It is possible to set a target that can fly to Mars or the moon, and it is possible to make a vertical landing on Earth, Mars, or the moon with passengers and cargo. If this spacecraft is put to practical use, it is expected that it will reach JWST located at L2 Lagrange point, repair the telescope, retrieve it to Earth, and relaunch it. In addition, by using an 8-meter-diameter cargo hold, it is expected to launch an undivided one-piece, 8-meter-diameter telescope that does not have a complicated folding structure, or a telescope several times larger than the JWST in the case of a folding type. A new era is expected. NASA has already inquired about the possibility of launching JWST as a STAR SHIP to SPACE X, but it is said that they got an answer that it is possible (not actually launched).

Structure

The mass of the James Webb Space Telescope is projected to be 6.5 tons, which is half that of the Hubble Space Telescope. And the diameter of the main reflector made of beryllium is 6.5 m, which is 2.5 times that of the Hubble Space Telescope, which is 2.4 m. Performance is expected. The main reflector is not one sheet, but a set of 18 hexagons.

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