House of Representatives
The House of Representatives (Japanese: 衆議院 Shugiin[*]; English: House of Representatives) is one of the two houses that make up the National Assembly of Japan. When the Japanese Imperial Constitution was implemented, the Imperial Diet was formed with the Nobility, and after the current Japanese Constitution was implemented in 1947, the National Assembly was formed with the House of Representatives.
House of Representatives of the Constitution of Japan
Voting rights: Japanese citizens aged 18 years or older (Japanese Public Official Election Act Article 9, June 19, 2016: 20 years old or older → 18 years old or older)
Right to be elected: Japanese nationals 25 years of age or older
The term of office is 4 years. However, in case of dissolution of the House of Representatives, the membership of the House of Representatives shall be forfeited before the expiration of the term of office.
Differences from the House of Representatives The term of office of the House of Representatives is shorter than that of the House of Representatives (6 years), and the House of Representatives may be dismissed during their term of office. Therefore, it is possible to realize a more faithful reflection of the people's will than the House of Councilors, so it has a superior position over the House of Councilors.
The Constitution stipulates superiority over the House of Councilors in the resolution of budget bills, the approval of treaties, and the appointment of the Prime Minister of the Cabinet. In addition, only the House of Representatives has the right to vote with confidence in the cabinet and the right to vote without confidence in the cabinet, and has the power to review the budget first. However, there is no supremacy in constitutional amendment. Relationship with the Cabinet The Cabinet may dissolve the House of Representatives. However, if the House of Representatives decides not to trust the Cabinet or rejects the trust in the Cabinet, the resignation must be made unless the House of Representatives is dissolved within 10 days.
Method of Election of Members
The electoral system adopts a single-member constituency system and a proportional representation system. Duplicate nominations in single constituency and proportional representation are also possible. Until the 1993 elections, the central constituency system was held.
The number of members is stipulated in Article 4 (1) of the Public Official Election Act.
The 1st National Assembly, first convened under the Constitution of Japan, was elected in the 22nd General Election conducted based on the House of Representatives Election Act (promulgated on March 31, 1947) amended by the 92nd Imperial Diet in consideration of the new constitution. made up of legislators. In this election, a total of 466 members were elected in the middle constituency system.
In 1950, the House of Representatives Election Act was abolished and the new Public Official Election Act stipulated that the number of members was 466. In 1953, the number increased by one to 467 due to the return of the Amami Islands, by 19 to 486 in 1964, by the return of Okinawa in 1971 to 491 by five, and by 20 to 511 in 1975. The increase in the number of members is partly because the inequality of voting value has been highlighted as a problem as the population has been concentrated in urban areas due to changes in the industrial structure. The intention was to ensure that the changes were not unfavorable to them.
In 1983, the Supreme Court ruled that when the maximum population gap in constituencies was 3 to 1 or more, Article 14 of the Constitution was violated. In 1992, 10 constituencies with a small population were reduced and 9 constituencies with a large population increased to 511.
In accordance with the so-called political reform, the mid-term constituency system was abandoned from the 1996 general election, and the single-member district and proportional representative system were adopted as it is now, and the number of members was reduced by 11 to 500 (300 constituencies, 200 proportional representatives). In 2000, the number of proportional representatives was reduced by 20 to 480 members (300 constituencies, 180 proportional representatives).
The Supreme Court of Japan held the election of the 2012 House of Representatives election on November 20, 2013, when the largest population deviation was 2.43 to 1.