House of Councilors (Japan)


May 29, 2022

The House of Councilors (Japanese: 参議院 Sangiin[*]) is one of the two houses that make up the Japanese National Assembly and corresponds to the Senate, and its English name is “House of Councillors”. In 1947, when the current Constitution of Japan was enforced, it was established in place of the Nobility House of the Imperial Diet and constitutes the National Assembly together with the House of Representatives.

House of Councilors of the Constitution of Japan

Voting Rights

Voting rights: Japanese citizens aged 18 years or older (Japanese Public Official Election Act Article 9, June 19, 2016: 20 years old or older → 18 years old or older) Right to be elected: Japanese nationals over 30 years of age


The term of office is 6 years. Half of them are newly elected by elections every three years. Unlike the House of Representatives, there is no dissolution during the term of office. In addition, as provided in Article 102 of the Constitution of Japan, half of the elected members of the first general election of the House of Representatives served a three-year term.

Method of Election of Members

Elections use the electoral district system with each prefecture as the constituency and the nationwide proportional representation system. Duplicate nominations are not allowed. Until the 1980 elections, the prefectural and nationwide district systems were implemented. In the 1st General Election of the House of Representatives, a three-year term and a six-year term were simultaneously elected.

Senator Integer

The number of members is stipulated in the Public Official Election Act. In 1947, the number of parliamentarians was set at 250, and with the return of Okinawa, one seat was increased in 1971 and 1974, respectively, and the number of seats was increased to 252. In 2001 and 2004, the number of members was reduced by 5 each, and the current number of members is 242 (146 constituencies, 96 proportional representatives) 1 seat, 2 proportional seats) increased. Since the House of Councilors election replaces half of the members, the number of seats is expected to increase by three in 2022 as well.

Organization and Organization

Chairman and Vice-Chairman

The chairman maintains order in the National Assembly, organizes decisions, supervises the affairs of the legislators, and represents the legislators. The Vice-Chairman shall act on behalf of the Chairman in the absence or absence of the Chairman. each is one In principle, the term of office lasts until the expiration of each term, but in practice, it is customary for the chairman to resign immediately after the election of the House of Representatives every three years and to elect a successor. It is also customary for the chairman to give up his party membership after being elected. The chairperson of the House of Representatives shall be appointed by the Secretary-General as acting chairperson on the day of the convocation of the House of Representatives or in the absence of the chairperson, when the number of members present is at least 1/3 of the total number of members. The chairperson is elected by secret ballot, and the person who receives a majority is elected. If no one has obtained a majority, a run-off voting will be held with the top two candidates receiving the votes. If two votes are the same in the final ballot, a decision will be made by lot. According to the imperial war criminals, the chairman and vice-chairman of the lower house become members of the imperial council.

Chairman's authority

designate the position of the seat The date and place of the opening ceremony are designated in consultation with the Speaker of the House of Representatives. Allowing members of parliament to resign during the adjournment of the National Assembly. Appointing members and authorizing their resignation. Permission to hold committee during the opening session. Approved to hold public hearings. Changed opening time. Banquets after 6 p.m. are adjudicated. Permission to speak if a person who did not notify to speak speaks. Permission to speak from the podium to anyone speaking from their own seat. Permission for leave of absence of members not exceeding 7 days. Police power in the Capitol. Order the arrest of current criminals inside the National Assembly. Ordered to leave the assembly hall for disturbing order in the meeting room. Do not allow anyone entering a meeting or committee room to carry a walking stick.