people in the book
The people of the book (Arabic: أهل الكتاب) refer to pagans according to the Qur'an, specifically Christians and Jews. It also has the meaning of those who received a revelation from God before Muhammad appeared. It can be said that it refers to the 5 books of Moses referred to in Judaism and the Old Testament appearing in the Bible.
In Islamic civilization, the Qur'an, the Bible of Muslims, is responsible for the true and enduring message of God. Because the book's people described God as a descendant of Abraham and like a Muslim, the beliefs described in the book are defined by divine rituals, tolerance, and self-governing rule. Sharia is the Islamic law.
In Judaism, the term "people of the book" (Hebrew: עם הספר, Am HaSefer) is, to a large extent, Jewish and Torah, referring to Jewish law and the Talmud. In the Jewish tradition, relations with other religions are essentially not discussed.
According to the classical understanding, the people of the book are people who have the following characteristics:
monotheistic religion (monotheism, Tawhid)
You must believe in the afterlife, the Last Judgment, heaven, and the existence of angels.
They are aware of Satan and hell, and they are aware of knowledge similar to eschatology.
There are several prophets and prophets like Moses.
They believe in creation stories and believe in the Garden of Eden and Adam and Eve. The name "people of the book" itself refers to the followers of the three religions that emerged after Abraham: Christianity, Judaism, and Islam, which are older than Islam. This may include Sabbians and Samaritans.
Numerous early Islamic lawyers also believed that Zoroastrianism should be given the title "people of the book" to its followers. It stipulates eschatology, heaven and hell, and there is no official mention of Adam, Eve, or Moses. Most Shia Muslims follow this opinion.
In general, "people of the book" refers only to religions that predate Islam. This is because the Prophet Muhammad believed in Islam as the Prophet's dedication and promise and was called the last prophet sent by God himself. This means that if they appeared later than Islam, they were related to Abraham and, even if they had all the elements, they would not be "people of the book."
There are many different opinions about Hinduism, because the word for Hindu itself has an advantage in the Arabic Al-Hind. Hinduism has the largest number of followers in India, but as the Muslim powers settled in India and expanded, it was necessary to change the initial regulations. Some were called mushrikeen. However, Hinduism is polytheistic and has various beliefs, and there are differences in that it is diversified into monotheism, polytheism, and universalism.
This does not apply to Sikhism because it rejects the concept of demons and angels, Adam and Eve. It is a religion that existed before Muhammad.
Buddhism does not clearly articulate the concept of God, and there are some contents that go against monotheistic notions. There is content on the theory of reincarnation, so it does not end in the afterlife, and does not recognize God from the point of view of creation, so it does not fall under the "people of the book".
"People of the Book" and Muslim affirmations�