July 6, 2022
Canada (English: Canada, French: Canada Canada[*]) is a federal state in northern North America. It consists of 10 provinces and 3 territories, bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Pacific Ocean to the west, and the Arctic Ocean to the north. Covering an area of about 9.98 million square kilometers, it is the second largest in the world after Russia and the largest in the Americas. It borders the United States to the south and west, and this border is 8,891 km long, making it the longest international border in the world. The capital of Canada is Ottawa, with Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver being the largest cities. Canada has been the home of Indigenous Canadians for thousands of years. In the late 16th century, the Kingdom of England and France began to explore Canada in earnest, and in the mid-17th century they settled on the Atlantic coast of Canada. After losing the Seven Years' War, France ceded New France to Britain and lost control of Canada. In 1867, British Canada was united to form Canada. After that, the increase in territory accelerated, and it gradually had an identity different from that of the British home country due to geographical influence and characteristics of an immigrant country. In 1931, under the Charter of Westminster, it became a dominion within the British Empire and administratively separated from its home country. Judicial power gained independence in 1949 when the Supreme Court was transferred from the London Primacy Court to the Canadian Supreme Court. In December 1951, the official name of the country was changed from the Dominion of Canada to Canada. Politically, Canada has a parliamentary system and is a federal state made up of 10 provinces and 3 territories. It forms an alliance with the Commonwealth countries, including the United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand. The head of state is Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth II is King of 16 countries), and the Governor-General of Canada is Queen Elizabeth II's representative. Canada has adopted English and French as official languages. Canada is a member of the G7, G8, G20, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, OECD, WTO, British Commonwealth, Francophonie, Organization of Americas, APEC, Development Assistance Committee and the United Nations. Meanwhile, in a 2012 survey by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Canada was ranked as the second most livable country in the world after Australia. Canada is one of the world's most developed countries, has the 18th highest nominal GDP per capita in the world, and the 16th highest in the world on the Human Development Index. Its economy is the 10th largest in the world, and it generates huge amounts of profit mainly through abundant resources and international trade. Canada is also a participant in the UN, NATO, G7, G20, Commonwealth, Trans-Pacific Partnership, Francophonie, and North American Free Trade Agreements.