The COVID-19 vaccine is a vaccine developed for the purpose of building acquired immunity against COVID-19. Even before COVID-19, vaccines are being developed using various approaches based on information obtained from the process of developing vaccines against coronaviruses such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS).2021 As of April, 13 vaccines have been licensed for use by health authorities in at least one country. 2 RNA vaccines (Pfizer-Biontech and Moderna), 5 inactivated vaccines (Sinopharm, KO Vaccine, SYNOVAC, WIBP-CorV, Corbivac), 4 viral vector vaccines (Sputnik V, Oxford-AstraZeneca, Janssen, Cansino) and two recombinant vaccines (Epivaccorona, ZF2001). As of March 2021, 308 vaccine candidates are under development, 73 are under clinical research, 24 are phase 1, and 33 are 1 -2 Phase 2 and 16 species are in phase 3 trials.
Number of participants in Phase 3
Despite the pandemic, a vaccine for COVID-19 has not been developed for humans, and the development of a vaccine against infectious diseases usually takes a lot of time. However, a coronavirus vaccine for animals has never been produced. It was a vaccine targeting the coronavirus, which is associated with bronchial bronchitis, which is transmitted to birds, dogs and cats. Projects for the development of vaccines for SARS and MERS, infectious diseases that can be transmitted between humans, were in progress and were in the animal testing stage.
Many organizations are using the open genome to develop vaccines against SARS-CoV-2.
Gam-COVID-Vac (Russian: Гам-КОВИД-Вак), or nickname Sputnik V (Russian: Спутник V), is a candidate for a vaccine against COVID-19.
It was developed by the Gamaleya National Center for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology and was registered in Russia on 11 August 2020 by the Russian Ministry of Health. As of August 8, 2020, there have been no acclaimed scientific reports on this vaccine candidate. Russian government officials have claimed that at least 20 countries are interested in vaccinating Russia. Russia has received preliminary bids for more than 1 billion vaccine purchases from these countries, and will be able to produce more than 500 million doses per year in five countries, according to the Russian Direct Investment Fund.
mRNA-1273, also called Moderna vaccine, was developed jointly by Moderna, a US vaccine developer, and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) under the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
mRNA-1273, which is under development with the start of the phase 1 clinical trial in March 2020, plans to enter the phase 2 clinical trial 10 months after the completion of the phase 1 clinical trial data. Currently, the development rate is the fastest among all vaccine candidates. In phase 1 clinical trials, 45 healthy adult males and females between the ages of 18 and 55 are targeted. They are vaccinated twice, 28 days apart.
On March 16, 2020, Moderna announced on its website that mRNA-1273, a vaccine candidate for the COVID-19 virus, was first administered to humans. It has been less than three months since the announcement of the development of a COVID-19 vaccine on January 21st. Among the COVID-19 vaccines released so far, mRNA-1273 is the first candidate to enter the clinical trial stage.
On March 23, 2020, Moderna announced that the vaccine mRNA-1273 would be available in emergencies this fall. It is explained that emergency vaccination will be available from this fall for front-line medical staff, and the general public will be vaccinated in the spring of next year.