The United Republic of Tanzania (Swahili: Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania; Arabic: جمهورية تنزانيا الاتحادية; English: United Republic of Tanzania is a country in East Africa, 1961; Tanganyika, which gained independence from , and Zanzibar, which gained independence in 1963, merged in 1964. Also, although the legal capital of Tanzania is Dodoma, the actual capital function is Dar es Salaam, the largest city in Tanzania, and many public institutions and companies, including embassies of each country, are still refusing to relocate.
The name 'Tanzania' comes from Tanganyika and Zanzibar, which form Tanzania. The name 'Tanganyika' means 'to sail the untamed' in Swahili. It is derived from the word 'zengi', which refers to the indigenous peoples of East Africa, and 'barr', an Arabic word for the coast.
Before colonial rule
The indigenous tribes living in East Africa are presumed to be hunter-gatherer tribes and isolated language speakers, such as the Haza and Sandaue. Judging from linguistic evidence, these languages are believed to be the ancestors of Iraqi, Gorowa, and Burunge, and it is estimated that speakers of the Eastern Kush group also came from the north of Lake Turkana about 4000 to 2000 years ago. Archaeological evidence suggests that about 2900 to 2400 years ago, Southern Nile speakers arrived from present-day Ethiopia and South Sudan into northern central Tanzania. It appeared almost simultaneously with the migration of the Bantu of civilization. They spread yam, an agricultural form and staple in West Africa. They spread to the rest of Tanzania between 2300 and 1700 years ago. East Nile speakers, including the Masai, arrived from present-day South Sudan between 500 and 1500 years ago. Travelers and merchants from the Persian Gulf and India began to visit East Africa in the 1st century AD. Around the 10th century, immigrants from the Arabian Peninsula and the Persian Gulf began to settle in East Africa, and with time they began to descend further south along the East African coast. Around the 14th century, intermarriage between Arabs and indigenous peoples of East Africa began to gradually assimilate Arab immigrants with the natives of East Africa. During this time, Islam was introduced to Tanzania.
In the early 16th century, the Portuguese Empire occupied East Africa, and in 1652, Mombasa, the Portuguese Empire, sought help from Oman to fight the Portuguese Empire, and Oman sent troops to East Africa to support the forces against the Portuguese Empire. In 1698, Oman ousted the Portuguese Empire from Mombasa, and soon gained influence in East Africa by occupying Zanzibar, the last remaining Portuguese ally, and began ruling East Africa about 100 years later. Sultan Said bin Sultan moved the capital to Zanzibar City, during which time Arab merchants carried on the slave trade in Tanzania. It was a colony of the German Empire from 1880 to 1919 and a British colony until 1961. In 1960, Julius Nyerere