turkey

Article

May 29, 2022

The Republic of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti [*]), abbreviated as Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Turkiye [*]), is a country spanning Anatolia in western Asia and East Thrace on the Balkans in southeastern Europe. The capital is Ankara and the largest city is Istanbul. It borders Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest, Georgia to the northeast, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Iran to the east, Iraq to the southeast, Syria and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and Aegean to the west. there is the sun About 70% to 80% of the population are Turks, and the rest of the population is a minority. The site where Turkey was founded is a place with a long history, where Anatolian and Assyrian empires existed, and Greeks, Thracians, Urartu, and Armenians existed here. Hellenism began during the reign of Alexander the Great and continued until the Byzantine Empire, and as the Seljuk Turks expanded their territory from the 11th century to the region, they defeated the Byzantine Empire at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, and Anatolia became part of Turkey. In 1243, the Sultanate of Rum ruled Turkey, and after it was destroyed by the Mongols, it was divided into small bays and lived autonomously. In the second half of the 13th century, the Ottoman Turks gradually began to integrate the Bays, and they began to increase their power and invade the Balkans. In 1453 Mehmed II captured Constantinople. The expansion of the Ottoman Empire continued even during the reign of Selim I, and during the reign of Suleiman the Great, the Ottoman Empire emerged as a world-class empire, controlling most of southeastern Europe, as well as Western Asia and North Africa. However, from the late 18th century, the Ottoman Empire also entered a period of decline, and in order to prevent the decline, Mahmut II carried out modernization reforms in the early 19th century and made major reforms in all areas including the military, feudal system, and society. In 1913, a coup took place in the Ottoman Empire led by young military officers, and under their leadership, the Ottoman Empire entered World War I in 1914. During this time, the Ottoman Empire committed a brutal massacre against the Armenians, Assyrians, and Greeks. After the defeat of the Ottoman Empire and its allies in World War I, the demands for independence of each region and peoples intensified, and European countries used this to weaken the unity of the Ottoman Empire. Eventually, the Ottoman Empire was divided into several countries due to European countries. In the Turkish provinces, Turkey's state wealthy Kemal Ataturk waged the Turkish War of Independence against foreign troops. Ataturk introduced countless reforms, brought in Western ideas and instilled values ​​such as democracy and freedom into the new Turkish government. Turkey is a founding member of the United Nations, a member of NATO, a member of the IMF and World Bank, and a member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC and G20. In addition, Turkey participated in the European Council in 1950, partially in the EEC in 1963, and in the EU Customs Union in 1995. In 2005, negotiations to join the European Union began. On March 13, 2019, the European Parliament only voted to suspend Turkey's accession negotiations, but it does not completely rule out the possibility. Turkey's economic and diplomatic strength is a regional power