Texas

Article

November 30, 2021

The State of Texas (Spanish: Estado de Texas, also known as Estado de Tejas) is a state in the southern United States. It is the second largest state after Alaska by area and second only to California in population (29 million). It gained independence from Mexico as the Republic of Texas in 1836, and on December 29, 1845, it was absorbed as the 28th state of the United States. It borders New Mexico to the northwest, Oklahoma to the north, and Louisiana and Arkansas to the east. To the south, it borders Mexico along the Rio Grande River. Texas is one of the most connected states with Mexican culture and has its own food culture called Tex-Mex. The term 'Texas size' is often used to emphasize how big it is, and thanks to its wide, flat terrain, it is also the most prominent place in the United States for private heavy-duty trucks. The state capital of Texas is Austin, and Austin is the center of the education and computer industry.

History

Aboriginal Age

About 30,000 Native Americans were living in what is now Texas when the first Europeans arrived. The largest of these tribes were the Kado Indians in the east, and most of the natives of Texas, including these, are known to have engaged in agriculture. Certain Cado tribes, including the Nacogdoches, Nasoni, and Neche, formed the Hasinai League. The Akokisa, Atakapa, Karankawa, and other small tribes lived along the coast. The militant Lippan Apaches lived on the Edwards Plateau in the west, while the Comanchees and Tonkawas lived in the Rolling Plains and Prairie Plains.

Exploring Spain

Spanish adventurers began exploring Texas in the early 1500s. In 1519, the Spanish governor of Jamaica sent Alonso Álvarez de Pineda (Spanish: Alonso Álvarez de Pineda) to explore the Gulf Coast from Florida to Mexico. Pineda drew a map of the coastline. Most historians believe he and his men were the first Europeans to arrive in Texas. In 1528, members of a Spanish expedition planning an American expedition to the south reached the Texas coast. Over the course of eight years, they increasingly headed west. Eventually they reached a Spanish settlement in Mexico near the Pacific coast. People flock to Mexico City, drawn to the stories of large and wealthy cities. The Spaniards sent many expeditions to find these golden cities, called the Seven Cities of Sibola. In 1540 Francisco Vázquez de Coronado migrated from northern Mexico. He passed through Texas in 1541. Coronado, however, only found grasshopper villages of Plains Indians and adobe huts of Pueblo Indians. In 1542, part of an expedition originally led by Hernando de Soto entered northeast Texas after their leader's death. They have reached the vicinity of Texacana today. Spain claimed rights to Texas on this and other expeditions based on missionary training centers later built by Spanish monks. The Franciscan missionaries built the first two training camps in Texas in 1682. These training camps were located near the site of present-day El Paso.

Exploring France

The French expedition to Texas began in 1685. That same year, René-Robert Cablier de La Salle made landfall in Mattergoder Bay. �

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