Falcon 9

Article

August 20, 2022

The Falcon 9 is a reusable space launch vehicle developed by SpaceX. It was first launched on June 4, 2010. It has been proposed in various ways, such as loading 9,900 kg and 27,500 kg of payloads into low-earth orbit (LEO), and placing loads of 4,900 kg and 12,000 kg on geostationary orbit (GEO). It is streamlined, with a diameter of 5.2m and a length of 70m. There are Falcon 9 v1.0, Falcon 9 v1.1, Falcon 9 v1.2 (Falcon 9 Block 3, Falcon 9 Block 4, Falcon 9 Block 5). Liquid oxygen and RP1 are used as main fuels. The Falcon 9's first-stage propellant can re-enter the atmosphere and re-ignite the engine, so it can be recovered and recycled through a landing pad or an offshore rocket recovery drone ship (ASDS). The fairing of the second stage propellant is also recyclable. The Falcon 9 is a SpaceX Dragon projectile that transports cargo and passengers under NASA's Commercial Material Transportation (CRS) program and the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) project, and is being operated as a projectile by the SpaceX Crew Dragon and Cargo Dragon. The Falcon 9 is also the primary launch vehicle for the Starlink satellite constellation program.

History

In 2006, NASA announced that it would retire the Space Shuttle and outsource cargo to the International Space Station through a commercial orbital transportation service, outsourced to a private rocket company. Orbital Science's Antares Rocket and SpaceX Falcon 9 were selected. The money received from NASA gave the SpaceX rocket business a boost. On March 24, 2006, the first Falcon 1 was launched. It was named after the Millennium Falcon, the spaceship Han Solo and Wookiee Chewbacca rode together in the Star Wars movie. In 2008, NASA signed a contract with SpaceX to carry cargo for 12 international space stations. On June 4, 2010, the first Falcon 9 v1.0 was launched. On October 8, 2012, Falcon 9 v1.0 was used to transport cargo from the International Space Station for the first time. On November 4, 2013, Elon Musk said that the Merlin 1D engine was actually being used at 85% thrust, and could produce a thrust of up to 730 kN (165,000 lbf, 74.8 ton force) at sea level. In May 2016, SpaceX announced that it would upgrade its Merlin 1D engine to a vacuum thrust of 914 kN (205,500 lbf, 93.2 ton force) and a sea level thrust of 845 kN (190,000 lbf, 86 ton force). This would allow the Falcon 9 rocket to lift 22 tonnes of cargo into low Earth orbit. On October 30, 2017, a contract was signed with KT of Korea and the Koreasat 5A was launched into a transitional orbit, collaborating with a Korean company for the first time. On May 11, 2018, the Falcon 9 Block 5, which had significantly improved performance from the existing Block 4, was launched for the first time. In December 2018, the recovered Falcon 9 first stage propellant (Block 4) was recycled as an auxiliary booster for the Falcon Heavy. On April 11, 2019, the recovered Falcon 9 first stage propellant (Block 5) was recycled as an auxiliary booster for the Falcon Heavy, achieving the first successful launch. On May 30, 2020, the first private company to transport people to the International Space Station via Crew Dragon Demo 2. On July 20, 2020, the first South Korean military satellite was launched. As of October 10, 2020, v1.0 5 times, v1.1 15 times, v1.2 74 times, a total of 94 shots. In the case of v1.0, it partially failed once, and in the case of v1.1, it was successfully fired 92 times, excluding the case of air detonation and the detonation case during the inspection of the first stage propellant of v1.2 block 4.

Main Flight

1st launch - Dragon space flight suitability test. Falcon 9 and Dragon's first flight (Dragon Spacecraft Qualification Unit) 3rd launch - First cargo delivery to the International Space Station as part of NASA's COTS project