Franz II

Article

August 20, 2022

Franz II (German: Franz II; 12 February 1768 - 2 March 1835) was the last emperor of the Holy Roman Empire during the Napoleonic Wars, emperor of Austria, king of Hungary and Croatia, and king of Bohemia. did. Emperor Franz I of Austria (German: Franz I), King František I of Bohemia (Czech: František I.), King Ferenc of Hungary and Croatia (Hungarian: Ferenc; Slovak: František II. František II. II, Croatian: Franjo II (Franjo II). As King of Italy, he served until Napoleon I proclaimed himself king of Italy in 1805, but in effect relinquished his right to Italy in 1797. He proclaimed the Austrian Empire and became Emperor of Austria before he dissolved the Holy Roman Empire under the pressure of Napoleon I.

Life

Born February 12, 1768 in Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany (present-day Italy), son of Leopold II, later Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, and Maria Ludovica of Spain. He received a political education from his uncle, Joseph II. Upon the death of his father in 1792, he assumed the throne and took over the affairs of the French Revolution. In response, he formed alliances with other European countries to implement an anti-French policy to support the First French Alliance, but in the Treaty of Campo Formio in 1797 he lost Lombardy and lands left of the Rhine and gave up all the rights he had exercised over the Kingdom of Italy. became He was greatly defeated by France from 1799 to 1801. When Napoleon ascended to the throne of France, he himself fought against it, elevating Austria to an empire and forming the Third French Alliance against it. However, the decisive defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz in 1805 resulted in the dissolution of the Third Alliance against France. Austria formed the 4th Alliance against France in 1807 and fought against it, but was also defeated. In 1810, he married his daughter Marie-Louis to Napoleon. However, when Napoleon suffered a major defeat in Russia and declined, he formed the 6th Alliance against France in 1813, which collapsed the French Empire in 1814 and supported Prime Minister Metternich after the Vienna Conference in 1815. He practiced a conservative political system and worked to suppress liberalism and grow the Roman Catholic Church, weakened by the Napoleonic Wars, but on the other hand, patronized the arts and sciences. He also actively introduced new technologies, floating steamships on the Danube River, and building railways. He died on March 2, 1835 in Vienna, Austria. Afterwards, V. Wiebol's , which describes his life and achievements, was published in 1938.

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Marriage and children

Franz II had one daughter (1 child in total) with Princess Elisabeth of Württemberg and 4 sons and 8 daughters (12 children) by Maria Theresia of Naples and Sicily. He had no children with Maria Ludovica of Este, Austria, and Caroline Auguste, Princess of Bavaria.

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