July 6, 2022

The French Republic (French: République française, English: French Republic), abbreviated as France (French: France), is a country with the largest territory among EU member states. . The capital is Paris. Mainland France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea in the north and south, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean in the east and west. Because of its topographical shape, the French often call this place L'Hexagone. Major cities include Paris, Marseille, Lyon, Toulouse, Nice, Nantes, Montpellier, and Vichy. In France, native Gauls live together, and in 51 BC, they were conquered by the Roman Empire by Julius Caesar, and after that, they adopted Roman culture and achieved rapid cultural development. After the decline of the Roman Empire, the Franks emigrated in 476, establishing the Frankish kingdom and prospering. However, after the death of Charles the Great, who led the kingdom to its heyday, civil war broke out and the Empire was separated by the Treaty of Verdun. Among these divided kingdoms, the Kingdom of West Frank was established as the Kingdom of France in 987. The French kingdom rapidly emerged as a major European power in the Middle Ages under the rule of Philip II, and during the Renaissance, it developed further and emerged as a power with global influence. In the 16th century, Catholicism and Protestantism were divided into violent civil wars, and only around the 17th century did they find stability under absolute monarchy. In particular, during the time of Louis XIV, who was called the Sun King, it was one of the most militarily and economically powerful countries in Europe. made a big mark on In the 19th century, Napoleon Bonaparte came to power, established and ruled the First French Empire. However, after losing the battle with Britain, the empire began to decline, and after being defeated in the Napoleonic Wars, there were repeated turmoil, until in 1870 the Third Republic of France was established. The French colonial empire reached its peak in 1938, when 5% of the world's population lived in French territory. France was a major participant in and victorious in World War I, and this victory enjoyed the effect of improving its international status, but in World War II, the mainland was occupied by Nazi Germany, and the war with colonies that wanted independence also conducted Representative examples are the Algerian War and the First Indochina War (French-Vietnam War). After liberation by the Allied Forces in 1944, the French Fourth Republic was established and disintegrated during the Algerian War. The present-day France is the Fifth Republic of France, founded in 1958 by President Charles de Gaulle. Due to the imperial heritage, nearly 300 million people can communicate in French, and Francophonie still exerts a strong influence on French-speaking countries. From the establishment of the EU, it played a pivotal role with Germany in the EU federation, and as a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, it withdrew in 1966 and rejoined in 1992. France is one of the most advanced countries in the world, and as of 2018, its nominal gross domestic product was the sixth largest in the world and the third largest in the euro area. In the same year, French companies such as Total, Sanofi, GDF Suez, BNP Paribas, LVMH, and L'Oreal were among the 100 largest companies by market capitalization in the same year. High-value-added industry-oriented countries, most of the manufacturing industries are high-wage, strong labor