he has a house


October 17, 2021

The Aliyah Bet (Hebrew: 'עלייה ב, 'aliyah B') or Ha'apala (העפלה, 'audacious attempt') was the illegal immigration of Jews into Mandatory Palestine from 1934 to 1948. The vast majority of the more than 100,000 involved immigrants, also called ma'apalim, came from Europe and made the journey by ship. As a result of ongoing riots between Jews and Arabs in Palestine, the British Mandate government increasingly restricted legal immigration. Due to the rise of National Socialism in Germany, large groups of Jews fled to Palestine and the Aliyah Bet started. The Zionist youth movement HeHalutz and revisionist Zionist groups such as the Betar carried out the first clandestine voyages by sea from 1934 onwards. In 1939 the British government issued a white paper in which it reduced the immigrant quota to 75,000 over five years. In the same year, the Mossad Le'Aliyah Bet was established, a unit of the Hagana that would organize immigration by sea more effectively. During the Second World War, the organization of illegal ship voyages was seriously hampered. During this period, the Hagana made preparations for the Bricha, the mass migration of Holocaust survivors. After the war, the Aliyah Bet reached its peak when more than 70,000 Jewish refugees traveled to Palestine in overcrowded ships. The Royal Navy intercepted most of the immigrants and deported them to internment camps in Atlit and Cyprus. In the post-war period, only twelve ships with more than two thousand immigrants on board managed to break through the British blockade. Events such as the sinking of the Patria and the Stroema, the La Spezia affair in Italy and the deportation to Germany of those on board the Exodus in 1947 attracted the attention of the international press. The Mossad Le'Aliyah Bet used that publicity to its advantage and deployed ever larger ships. Thousands of refugees were arrested in front of the world and public opinion turned against the British Mandate government. In 1947 she enlisted the help of the United Nations, which decided to divide Palestine into two independent states. The independence of the new Jewish state of Israel was proclaimed on May 14, 1948. Since then, the Aliyah Bet has been commemorated through exhibitions, monuments and numerous cultural expressions.


The Hebrew term aliyah, also transliterated into English as alia, is derived from alah (עָלָה), which literally means 'ascend', 'go up' or 'climb'. It is originally a Tanachic term for ascending to a holy place. For Jews, Palestine is the Promised Land, Eretz Israel ('Land Israel'), and therefore the holiest land. Rabbinic literature adopted the term aliyah to denote emigration to native Israel from the various lands of the Jewish diaspora, such as Egypt, Babylonia, and the Assyrian Empire. Bet (ב) is the letter B in the Hebrew alphabet and is in the term Aliyah Bet short for bilti-legalit (בלתי־ליגאלית), which literally means 'illegal'. Aliyah Bet is therefore a code name that had to hide its actual meaning: the illegal emigration to Palestine. It is also a play on words; the Jewish community in Palestine called the legal immigration allowed in the British White Paper the Aliyah Alef, where Alef (א) stands for the first letter in the Hebrew alphabet. Since the British quotas were too low in the eyes of the Zionists, the Aliyah Bet was the 'Plan B'.

History (until 1934)

According to Jewish tradition, their diaspora began with the fall of the kingdom of Israel in the 8th century BC, followed by that of the kingdom of Judah in the 6th century BC. In the Middle Ages, the Jews had dispersed in Europe, the Eastern Bloc and the Arab world. After anti-Semitism is everywhere

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