Common Authority File


August 13, 2022

Gemeinsame Normdatei (GND, English: Integrated Authority File) is an international standard for organizing names of persons, organizations and categories in catalogues. GND is mainly used in libraries and archives as a bibliographic information system. In phase 2 of the Wikidata project, GND is the starting point for the layout of info boxes. GND is only used for exchange with MARC-21 authorities. For exchange are in PICA format some specific fields adapted to MARC-21 format.


The GND standard was designed at the National Library of Germany and put into use in 2012 with the aim of replacing a number of standards:

Types of GND high-level entities

There are six main types of GND entities: Examples of other types of bibliographic information systems are Virtual International Authority File (VIAF), Library of Congress Authorities (LCNAF), NDL Web Authorities of the National Library of Japan, and LIBRIS of the National Library of Sweden.

External links

(de) GND official home page (archived) (de) Online GND (Bibliotheksservice-Zentrum Baden-Württemberg)