Green tuber manite
The green tuberous manite (Amanita phalloides) is one of the most poisonous mushrooms in the world. In English, the mushroom is called "death angel" or "death cap."
HatThe hat has a diameter of 4-12 cm. The hat is bell-shaped at first and later spreads out more. The brim is not grooved. The center turns olive green and becomes whiter near the edge. The hat rarely contains velum remains. If there are velum residues, this is in large white slices.
LamellaeThe lamellae are free from the stem and are belly and white, often with a green reflection. This color is an important distinguishing characteristic from mushroom species, with which the tuberous manites are often confused.
StemThe stem is slender, white or greenish banded. The stipe usually has clearly white scales. The length is approximately equal to the hat diameter. The handle is provided with a hanging ring (cuff). This cuff has vertical stripes at the top. The tuberous stem base arises from a fleshy, white sheath, which never occurs in mushrooms. Juveniles are completely surrounded by an egg-like, fleshy purse.
Fragrance The smell is honey-like or wee-like.
SporesThe spore color is white.
The green tuberous manite is usually found in deciduous forests, especially under oak, beech, hazel and chestnut trees. The mushroom is mainly found from July to October.
A small amount - 30-50 grams - of this mushroom can be fatal from liver poisoning. The first symptoms are often extremely severe abdominal pain (intestinal cramps), vomiting and diarrhoea. These occur six to twelve hours after consumption, too late to intervene with the stomach pumping, but it is not uncommon that the effects only become visible 24 hours after eating the mushroom. The diarrhea and stomach cramps disappear after a while and a latent phase sets in. This is also insidious because many victims wait even longer before going to a doctor or hospital because they think it's over.
Periods of illness alternate with periods of feeling better. Nevertheless, the condition slowly deteriorates and after a few days the symptoms of liver disease appear. After four to five days, the toxin has severely damaged the liver and kidneys. Because the symptoms of the disease are rather general in the first place, it sometimes happens that patients go to the hospital relatively late, after which even liver transplantation can no longer offer solace. of RNA polymerase II, thereby blocking the elongation phase that normally occurs in DNA transcription. In addition, the mushroom contains seven other toxins, including phallotoxins. Due to poor absorption after oral ingestion, phallotoxins contribute only to a limited extent to the symptoms of poisoning. About 15% of victims die within ten days of eating the mushroom. Those who survive never fully recover. Two cases after eating soup with self-collected green tuberous manite are described in the Dutch Journal of Medicine (2007). Until the middle of the 20th century, the death rate after consumption of the green tuberous manite was around 70%. Improved treatment methods (including liver transplantation) have reduced this mortality rate to 22.4%. In children, eating this mushroom leads to death in 51% of cases.
Despite improved treatment methods, people in the Netherlands and abroad still die as a result of eating green tubercle manite. For example, in October 2009 a 65-year-old woman from Zoutkamp and in September 2010 a 61-year-old man from Heerlen died after eating this mushroom. An example is also known of a Dutch woman who committed suicide by a green bulb