Kabul (stad)

Article

May 17, 2022

Kabul or Kabul (Pashto, Persian: كابل, Kābol) is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan. The city had a population of 913,164 at the last census of 1979. The Afghan Statistical Service estimated the population at 2,536,300 in 2006 and at 5,350,000 in 2020. In the years that followed, the population increased due to the enormous influx of internally displaced persons, for whom exact statistics were lacking. The city is located in the east of the country, about 230 km from the border with Pakistan. Kabul is strategically located on the Khyber Pass, the main link between Afghanistan and Pakistan.

History

The history of Kabul is a story of three thousand years of destruction and reconstruction. In the 7th century, Kabul was conquered by the Arabs. Babur (1504 - 1526) made Kabul the capital of the Mughal Empire. Nadir Shah, the Shah of Iran, captured them in 1738. In 1773, Kabul became the capital of Afghanistan. The city was captured by the British in 1839 during the Afghan-British War and partially destroyed by fire in 1842. In 1879 an uprising took place in which many British subjects were murdered. On December 23, 1979, the Soviet Union occupied the city and established its military headquarters there. A war raged for ten years until the Russians left Afghanistan in 1989. However, after the withdrawal of the Russians, a civil war broke out that killed an estimated 50,000 people on the streets of Kabul. In 1996, after a chaotic period during which it was the target of shelling by multiple warring factions, the city came under the control of the Taliban. After declaring the 'fight against terrorism', the United States, supported by several other countries, attacked Afghanistan in the War in Afghanistan. On November 9, 2001, the Northern Alliance, a militia backed by the west, captured the city. Since that time, the city has been under the control of the United Nations and is militarily supported by the ISAF. During the Taliban regime (1994-2001), the unofficial Afghan capital and seat of Mullah Omar was not Kabul but the southern city of Kandahar. Thereafter, Kabul became the seat of the Afghan Provisional Transitional Government and subsequently the constitutional capital of the new Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. After that, Kabul continued to be the scene of fighting and attacks, alternating between calm and restless periods. Despite the violence, the city developed both in terms of inhabitants and economic activity. On Sunday, August 15, 2021, Kabul fell into the hands of the Taliban. Only the international airport remained out of the hands of the Taliban for the time being. On Thursday, August 26, a double suicide attack took place at the airport. On Monday, August 30, the international airport also fell into the hands of the Taliban.

Traffic and transport

Kabul has an international airport, Kabul International Airport. Between 1979 and 1992/1993 the city was served by a trolleybus line.

Culture and science

The city is the seat of the Afghan National Museum and of the Afghan Academy of Sciences.

Sports

The city is home to Ordu Kabul FC who play in the Afghanistan Premier League.

City twinning

Dubai (United Arab Emirates) Istanbul (Turkey) Kazan (Russia) Saskatoon (Canada)

Famous residents of Kabul

Born

Abdur Rahman Khan (ca.1844-1907), Emir of Afghanistan Inayatulah Khan (1888-1946), King of Afghanistan Daud Khan (1909-1978), sardar (prince) and president of Afghanistan Mohammed Zahir Shah (1914-2007), King of Afghanistan Kader Khan (1937–2018), actor and film director Abdullah Abdullah (1960), politician Khaled Hosseini (1965), writer Lida Abdul (1973), artist Tahmina Akefi (1983), Dutch publicist Robina Muqim Yaar (1986), track and field athlete Farshad Bashir (1988), Dutch politician Qays Shayesteh (1988), Ned