List of states with limited recognition

Article

May 17, 2022

Following is a list of non-unanimously recognized states. The criteria for inclusion are that a government claims sovereignty, lacks recognition from at least one UN member state, and either: conform to the declarative theory of sovereignty, or be recognized as a state by at least one UN member state.

Explanation

There are several areas that are not internationally recognized as states, but which are de facto independent states. Most of these areas are parts of a country, where an ethnic minority of the motherland is the majority and which has seceded from that motherland. Micronations, such as Sealand and Hutt River, are also unrecognized countries that claim independence and sometimes de facto own. However, micronations are not taken seriously internationally and are therefore not included in the list below. See the list of micronations for this.

Members of the United Nations not recognized by some other UN members

Armenia not recognized by Pakistan. People's Republic of China not recognized by the 13 UN members and Vatican City that recognizes the Republic of China (Taiwan). Cyprus not recognized by Turkey. Israel not recognized by Afghanistan, Algeria, Bangladesh, Brunei, Comoros, Cuba, Djibouti, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, Morocco, North Korea, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Syria, Tunisia and Yemen. North Korea not recognized by South Korea, Japan and France. South Korea not recognized by North Korea.

Members of the United Nations that were once not recognized by other UN members

Mauritania not recognized by Morocco (1960-1969). Kuwait not recognized by Iraq (1990-1994).

Partly recognized countries with in practice control over their territory

Abkhazia in northwestern Georgia is a functioning self-proclaimed state, recognized by Russia, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Nauru, and Syria. The de facto country was also once recognized by Tuvalu and Vanuatu, but these countries have withdrawn their recognition. Abkhazia is located between the Caucasus and the Black Sea. After the occupation of independent Georgia by Soviet troops in 1921, Abkhazia was briefly separated from Georgia. Within the Soviet Union, Abkhazia was part of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic as the Abkhaz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR). In 1992 Abkhazia declared itself independent, leading to a war that lasted until 1994. Since then, Abkhazia has been out of Georgia's control. In addition to the Russian ruble, Abkhazia uses its own currency, the Abkhaz Apsar. After the Kosovo War, Kosovo functioned de facto independently from Serbia from 1999 to 2008 under UNMIK, based on UN Security Council Resolution 1244. De jure Kosovo is an autonomous Serbian province. On February 17, 2008, the Kosovo parliament unilaterally declared its independence. It is recognized by 108 of the 193 UN member states, including the Netherlands, Belgium and most other member states of the European Union and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. However, many other countries, such as the former mother country of Serbia, Russia, China, Spain, India, Brazil, Morocco, Mexico, Kazakhstan and Iran, do not recognize independence and still consider it part of Serbia. Kosovo is a member of the Central European Free Trade Association. After the Greek Cypriot coup d'état and the subsequent occupation by Turkey in 1974 in Northern Cyprus, the Turkish Cypriots proclaimed the Turkish Federal State of Cyprus. In 1983 the parliament proclaimed the independent Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. Northern Cyprus is only recognized by Turkey. A UN proposal under Kofi Annan to bring the two Cypriot states together into a confederal state was accepted by Turkish Cypriots, but rejected by the Greek Cypriots in a 2004 referendum. Taiwan