Napoleon III


July 5, 2022

Karel Lodewijk Napoleon Bonaparte (French: Charles-Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 Paris – 9 January 1873 Chislehurst near London) was President of the French Republic from 1848 to 1852, and as Napoleon III Emperor of France from 1852 to 1870. Lodewijk Napoleon, as he was also called, was a nephew (nephew) of Napoleon I.


Youth and early years

Lodewijk Napoleon was born in Paris in 1808 as the son of Lodewijk Napoleon Bonaparte, King of Holland and his wife Hortense de Beauharnais, daughter of Josephine de Beauharnais. He had two older brothers, Napoleon Karel (1802, died before the birth of Lodewijk Napoleon) and Napoleon Lodewijk (1804). His parents' marriage was unhappy. Since 1807 they lived separately. Louis Napoleon was conceived during a moment of rapprochement, but shortly afterwards the rift between the parents was final. King Louis Napoleon was not present at the birth and baptism of his youngest son. Young Louis Napoleon spent part of his childhood in England but returned to France early on. In October 1836, Louis Napoleon appeared before a barracks in Strasbourg, where he proclaimed that he would depose King Louis Philip. He was arrested, tried but acquitted by court martial, after which he was sent away with 15,000 francs. He left for England again. After a second coup attempt in August 1840 in Boulogne, where he was soon arrested after a landing with 65 soldiers, Louis Napoleon was imprisoned in the fortress of Ham. During his imprisonment, he continued to write pamphlets about his rights to the throne. During this time his first natural sons were born, Eugène and Alexandre Bure. Their mother was Eleonore Vergeot. His uncle Jozef Bonaparte died in July 1844, and a few months later his father died, making him the rightful heir to the throne in the eyes of the Bonapartists.


He was not a candidate in the parliamentary elections in April 1848, but three members of the Bonaparte family, Jérôme Bonaparte, Pierre Napoléon Bonaparte, and Lucien Murat were elected. The name Bonaparte was still a political factor. The revolution year of 1848 brought the February Revolution in France, in which Louis Philip's July Monarchy, which arose from the July Revolution of 1830, came to an end. A turbulent time followed, with several power changes in a short period of time. Finally, in November, after several elections, Louis Napoleon managed to be definitively elected as a member of parliament in the Assemblée Nationale. In October, another amendment was tabled by a Republican who did not want members of the Imperial family to become members of parliament. It backfired; articles of law that excluded this possibility were deleted. After Napoleon's election, a new constitution was made (not especially for Napoleon, but in connection with the new state system) and the presidential elections followed a month later. Napoleon won convincingly, partly due to his name, and the unpopularity of his greatest opponent, General Cavaignac, and Louis Napoleon became the first French president to be elected by the people. A major campaign during Napoleon's presidency was directed against the Italian unit fighter Giuseppe Mazzini, who ruled Rome, where the Roman Republic had been founded in February 1849. At the request of Pope Pius IX, Napoleon sent an expeditionary force of 9,000 men, which Mazzini and his associates managed to drive out in July 1849. Later, Napoleon would change his mind and side with the unit fighters.


In 1851, Louis Napoleon proposed to parliament to change the constitution so that the president could stand for re-election. He felt the four-year term was too short to complete his entire program. The parliament, which