New York City
New York is the largest city in the United States of America. Its leading and influential roles in commerce, finance, media, public relations, art, fashion and education make it one of the world's most important cities. The city is also called New York City or NYC to distinguish it from the state of New York in which it is located. New York is not the capital of that state, that is Albany.
The New York metropolitan area is one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world. The city is the most populous major city in the United States with approximately 8.5 million inhabitants spread over an area of 789.43 km². New York City is made up of five boroughs: The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island. Many of the city's landmarks and neighborhoods are world-famous and often symbolize the United States in general. There are the Statue of Liberty, Wall Street, skyscrapers such as the Empire State Building and the Chrysler Building, the old World Trade Center with the Twin Towers, destroyed by terrorists in 2001 and its successor, the One World Trade Center that opened in 2014.
The bustle and vibrancy give the city the nickname The City That Never Sleeps ("the city that never sleeps"). Another popular nickname is the Big Apple.
The lower Hudson River, where New York is located, was inhabited by about 5,000 Lenape Indians when it was discovered by Giovanni da Verrazzano in 1524. Da Verrazzano, who sailed in the service of the French crown, called the area "Nouvelle Angoulême". Presumably he sailed no further than The Narrows strait, where a bridge named after him now lies. With the journey of Henry Hudson, an Englishman in the service of the Dutch VOC, the area was effectively mapped. Hudson discovered Manhattan on September 11, 1609 and carried the current that now bears his name, the Hudson, to present-day Albany.
Hudson quickly discovered that the fur trade to Europe was a lucrative source of income. Hudson led Dutch merchant ships to the area months later. Trade between the Netherlands and the natives flourished but did not lead to permanent settlements. In 1624, a group of Protestant Walloon families founded a first settlement in Manhattan and named it "Neuf-Avesnes" (Nieuw-Avenne). Neighbors and families of German, Dutch and British descent followed. The area was called New Netherland, in Latin at the time: Nova Belgica or Novum Belgium. In May 1626, Peter Minuit was appointed the colony's first governor. The settlement was later given the name New Amsterdam.
In 1626 Minuit bought Manhattan from the Indians for trinkets worth 60 guilders, now about 700 euros or a thousand dollars. In the run-up to the Second Anglo-Dutch War in 1664, New Amsterdam was conquered by the English, who named the settlement New York after the Duke of York. In 1673, the Netherlands briefly possessed it again. After the name was changed to "New Orange", it became definitively British at the Peace of Westminster in 1674. In exchange, the British definitively renounced Suriname by this treaty. Under British rule, the trading post grew in importance. Columbia University was founded in 1754 at the direction of George II of Great Britain. Battles took place around the city during the American Revolutionary War. They became known as the New York Campaign. After the Battle of Fort Washington in Upper Manhattan in 1776, the city became a British military and political base until the end of the war in 1783.
18th and 19th century
Five years after the end of the Revolutionary War in 1788, New York became the capital of the United States. George Washington was proclaimed first president in the Federal Hall in 1789. It was also in that building that the first meeting of the United States Congress was held that same year and the Bill of Rights was passed