Nord Stream, until 2006 Northern European Gas Pipeline (NEGP) and also called Baltic Sea Gas Pipeline or Baltic Pipeline, is a two-way subsea pipeline for transporting Russian natural gas through the Baltic Sea to Germany. Construction started on December 9, 2005 and gas in the first pipeline started flowing on November 8, 2011.
The construction of Nord Stream 2, a similar project, started in September 2018, bringing the total capacity to 110 billion m³ on an annual basis.
Nord Stream 1 (NS 1)
On September 8, 2005, the pipeline construction agreement was signed between Russia's Gazprom and the German companies E.ON and BASF in the presence of German Prime Minister Gerhard Schröder and Russian President Vladimir Putin. Gazprom has the largest share in the project with 51%, Wintershall and E.ON each have a 20% share in the project and the Nederlandse Gasunie for 9%. Gasunie only became part of the consortium on 6 November 2007 and was entered in the register of participants on 10 June 2008. At the beginning of 2010, it was also announced that the French energy company GDF Suez will take a 9% stake. Wintershall and E.ON have both sold a 4.5% stake to enable GDF Suez to participate.
The project also includes the plan to build in a facility to extend the pipeline to the Netherlands and the United Kingdom in the future.
The owner of the future pipeline is Nord Stream AG, which was called the North European Gas Pipeline Company until 2006.
The company was registered in the Swiss Trade Register as NEGP Company on December 2, 2005. The supervisory board (supervisory board) started its work on 1 March 2006 and is led from 30 March by the former German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder. Matthias Warnig became general manager, representative of the Dresdner Bank in Russia. According to the German Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz, Warnig was deputy leader of the 5th Referate of Department XV of the GDR foreign secret service at the 'Ministerium für Staatssicherheit' (Stasi). Russia is the main exporter of gas to Europe. For this pipeline, the gas will come from the Yuzhno-Russkoye oil and gas field, located in northern Western Siberia (Jamalia). 75% of total Russian gas exports go to Europe and Europe covers about 40% of the gas needs through imports from Russia. Gazprom has already signed contracts with a number of European gas companies, including DONG Energy, E.ON Ruhrgas and GDF Suez, to supply 22 billion m³ of gas per year once the pipeline is completed.
The (double) pipeline consists of two parts: a part over land and a part under water. The first section of the pipeline starts at Babajevo in Vologda Oblast and runs from there to Vyborg (northwest of Saint Petersburg). This part has a length of 917 kilometers. From Vyborg, the pipeline continues on the bottom of the Baltic Sea. The pipeline ends at Greifswald (northeastern Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania). The length is 1,224 kilometers for the part in the Baltic Sea. Two pipelines have been built in Germany, such as the NEL pipeline, with a total length of 900 kilometers, which connects Greifswald to the European gas pipeline network.
The Nord Stream pipeline has a capacity of about 55 billion m³ of gas per year, which is about half of the annual gas consumption in Germany in 2005. The cost of the section on the seabed was estimated at €4 billion ($4. 7 billion). The land portion will cost $5 billion, according to Gazprom's Alexei Miller. In mid-2008, Nord Stream and Saipem signed a contract worth €1 billion. Saipem will build the pipeline and will deploy two pipelayers for this purpose, including the Castoro Sei. Construction of the first pipeline started on April 6, 2010 and the second