Article

October 17, 2021

Global warming, also called global warming, climate disruption or climate crisis, is the increase in global temperature since the pre-industrial period. The average air temperature of the Earth's atmosphere at ground level was about 0.87°C (0.75-0.99°C) higher in the period from 2006 to 2015 than in the period from 1850 to 1900. This warming is accompanied by with global climate changes, such as changes in rainfall patterns and desertification. It is undisputed among climate scientists that the average temperature on Earth has increased since the mid-20th century. There is also consensus on the cause: this trend is mainly caused by an increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, which in turn is the result of the strong population growth and increase in human activities, including: use of fossil fuels, deforestation, certain industrial and agricultural activities. Since the beginning of the 21st century, the majority of the public and politicians have also taken the view that there is a climate problem and that this is largely the result of human actions. Various climate models predict a temperature increase of less than one degree in the short term. By the end of the 21st century, this could have risen to several degrees. All major climate changes are disruptive and have previously led to the extinction of many species, migration of populations, and major changes in land surface and ocean circulation. The rate of current climate change is faster than most previous changes, making adaptation for nature and adaptation for human society more difficult. In addition, the increased complexity of human society means that there is an increasing risk. Current climate change therefore entails a significantly greater risk of damage. Temperature rises of more than 2°C in particular bring major changes to people and the environment, among other things due to sea level rise, increase in drought and heat periods, extreme precipitation and a decrease in biodiversity. A temperature rise of 2 °C has much more far-reaching consequences than a rise of 1.5 °C. Several measures are possible to minimize the damage caused by climate change. On the one hand, it is possible to tackle the cause (mitigation): emit less greenhouse gases by making energy use more sustainable and better protecting natural areas. On the other hand, societies will have to adapt (adaptation) by, for example, reinforcing dykes and growing better adapted crops. In the Paris agreement of December 2015, it was agreed to limit global warming to well below 2 °C, but preferably to a maximum of 1.5 °C. It has also been agreed in this treaty that money will be released to help poorer countries with the necessary adjustments.

Observations

There is a large number of independent observations from different scientific fields, such as meteorology, glaciology, oceanography and biology, showing that the Earth is warming. Meteorology shows that temperatures over land and over the oceans, corrected for effects such as the heat island effect, are rising systematically. The average surface temperature has increased by 0.85 °C (0.65-1.06 °C) in the period from 1880 to 2012, with warming being stronger over land than over the oceans. Analysis of many glaciers shows the same historical warming curve of the Earth as direct temperature measurements. Warming has been observed in both the upper 700 meters of the ocean and the deep ocean. The temperature in the top 75 meters increased by 0.11°C (0.09-0.13°C) per decade during the period from 1971 to 2010. Some extreme weather events are more common. For example, there are more exceptionally warm days on average

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