Flood

Article

January 27, 2022

A flood is an event in which a significant amount of water from a sea, river or lake reaches places that would not normally be submerged. If this takes serious forms, the devastating effect is also referred to as a flood or disaster. Land that is permanently lost due to a flood is called drowned land.

Causes

In the Netherlands and surrounding countries, flooding is mainly caused by the North Sea, which is pushed up by storms, which can cause dikes to burst. Combination with a spring tide and/or high water levels in the lower reaches of the major rivers can further enhance this effect. During the last major storm surge, the Flood of 1953, the combination of a prolonged severe northwesterly storm and a spring tide had disastrous consequences. The flood risk can be determined using models. Extreme rainfall in the upstream areas or a lot of meltwater from the Alps can lead to flooding. Because a river landscape is often formed in lowlands where the rivers naturally overflow, people have traditionally protected themselves with dikes. But dikes have also been breached regularly along the rivers. In addition to high water, other causes can also lead to flooding, such as dyke subsidence due to prolonged drought. In contrast to flooding by seawater, river water in higher areas drains away on its own over time, but in the meantime can cause a lot of damage and nuisance. In lower-lying areas, water has to be pumped out of low-lying polders. In urban areas, flooding can be caused or exacerbated by the large amount of surfacing. Paving prevents rainwater from infiltrating, resulting in high surface runoff, which in turn may exceed the local drainage capacity. Heavy rainfall in mountainous areas can also cause serious flooding in lower valleys. . Under some circumstances, rapid snowmelt on mountains can also lead to flooding. In tropical countries, floods can be caused by huge rainfall during the monsoon. In Bangladesh, for example, there have been several disasters (including in 1989 and 2004). Seaquakes can lead to tsunamis, tidal waves that wreak havoc as soon as they hit a coast. And in 2006, East Java experienced a mudslide of extreme magnitude. The mud started to flow out of the ground after a drilling. An area can also be intentionally flooded by human intervention, this is called inundation. There could be several reasons for this.

Netherlands

From sea

In the Netherlands, many floods from the sea have taken place since the Middle Ages. Many were given the name of the saint whose day it was that day. That is why several floods have been given the same name. A selection of the years in which storm surges occurred: 838 1014 1042 1134 1163 1164 1170 1196 1212 1214 1219 1220 1221 1248/1249 1277 1280 1282 1287 1288 ( I) 1288 (II) 1322 1334 1362 1374 1375 1377 1404 1421 1424 1468 1477 1509 1514 1530 1532 1552 1566 1570 1610 1651 1675 1682 1686 1703 1717 1825 1877 1906 1916 1953 2006.

From the major rivers and/or through rain

Dikes also broke many times along the major rivers. Between 1750 and 1800 alone 152 times. After the establishment of the 'Bureau voor den waterstaat' (currently Rijkswaterstaat) in 1798, this frequency decreased rapidly. Since the end of the eighteenth century, the major rivers had to deal with high water levels eight times. Six times this led to major dike breaches and flooding. Dike breaches in the river area after 1780: In 1993 high water caused

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