Donetsk People's Republic
Donetsk People's Republic (Russian: Донецкая народная республика; Donetskaya narodnaya respoeblika, is a self-proclaimed republic in eastern Ukraine that was proclaimed on May 12, 2014 after Russian-backed separatists occupied government buildings on April 7, 2014 during the War in Eastern Ukraine in Donetsk Oblast and forced a referendum.Denis Pushilin has been the head of state since 2018.
Ukraine considers the Donetsk People's Republic and Lugansk People's Republic (which together form the proposed confederation project of New Russia) as well as the Republic of Crimea as part of the "Temporarily Occupied Territories of Ukraine" as a result of Russian military intervention. According to the 2018 census, 2,302,444 people — more than half of the total population of Donetsk Oblast — lived in the occupied territory. Although the separatists control less than half (8902 km2) of Donetsk Oblast, they control major cities such as the capital Donetsk, Makijivka and Horlivka. At first, the Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republics were only recognized by each other and South Ossetia. On February 21, 2022, Russian President Vladimir Putin announced in a lengthy speech to the Russian people that Russia would recognize the People's Republics of Donetsk and Lugansk, and the official documents were subsequently signed. This was condemned by NATO. Both republics are at the center of the Russo-Ukrainian conflict (2021-2022) and the Russian invasion of Ukraine in 2022.
On June 27, 2014, the Security Council of South Ossetia decided to recognize the Donetsk People's Republic. The President of South Ossetia, Leonid Tibilov, told the media: "I believe that the recognition of the Donetsk Republic is the right step", "the people of South Ossetia support and welcome the decision to recognize Donetsk and Lugansk ". On May 13, 2015, the Donetsk Ministry of Foreign Affairs said in a statement that President Aleksandar Zaharcenko of the Donetsk People's Republic had signed papers recognizing Abkhazia and South Ossetia. On June 18, 2016, the President of Abkhazia, Raul Khajimba, expressed his appreciation for the recognition of Abkhazia by the Donetsk People's Republic. However, he stated that recognition of the Donetsk and Lugansk People's Republics by Abkhazia would be inappropriate, as both negotiated with the government of Ukraine to grant them greater autonomy, not independence, as stipulated in the Minsk II Agreement. After Russia recognized the People's Republic of Donetsk on February 21, 2022, Abkhazia did so on February 26, 2022.
Donetsk People's Republic has a fairly high population density. As of January 1, 2018, there were 2,302,444 people living in the breakaway republic, according to the census. As of November 2014, more than 50% of the total population of Donetsk Oblast lived in separatist-controlled territory. This number is relatively high as the rebels do not control most of the Donetsk Oblast, but they control major cities such as Donetsk and Horlivka. As of June 17, 2015, it is estimated that about half of the people living in separatist areas are retirees.
Donetsk Oblast, within which the Donetsk People's Republic was proclaimed, is bordered to the southwest and west by the Dnipropetrovsk and Zaporizhia Oblasts, to the northwest by Kharkiv Oblast, to the northeast by Luhansk Oblast (containing the Lugansk People's Republic), to the southeast by the Rostov Oblast in Russia, and to the south on the Sea of Azov. The relief of the area is a hilly plain intersected by river valleys. The average height above sea level is 140 m. The climate is a continental climate. Winters are mild and short; summers are hot and long. The average temperature in