1960

Article

August 13, 2022

1960 (MCMLX) in the Gregorian calendar was a leap year that began on a Friday.

Events

Abroad

First quarter

The SI system was designed. 1 January – Cameroon independent. 4 January – The free trade organization EFTA is established (Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Great Britain, Portugal, Switzerland and Austria). January 9 – Construction of the second Aswan Dam in Egypt begins. 11 January – Chad declares independence. January 23 - Jacques Piccard and Don Walsh in the bathyscaphe USS "Trieste" reach the bottom of the Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean (10,750 meters deep). February 9 - Joanne Woodward receives the first star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. February 13 – France tests its first atomic bomb in Gerboise bleue. February 21 - Fidel Castro makes all industry in Cuba national property. February 29 – An earthquake destroys the city of Agadir in Morocco, killing more than 10,000 people. March 6 - The United States announces that it will send 3,500 troops to Vietnam. March 21 – Police open fire on a group of unarmed black protesters in Sharpeville, South Africa, killing 69 and injuring 180. March 22 – A.L. Schawlow and C.H. Townes gets the first patent on a laser.

Second quarter

April 1st - The US launches its first weather satellite, TIROS-1. Tuanku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia's first king, dies in office and is replaced by Hisamuddin Alam Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Alaeddin Sulaiman Shah, Sultan of Selangor (state of Malaysia). April 21 – Brazil changes its capital from Rio de Janeiro to Brasília. April 27 – Togo becomes independent from French administration under UN mandate. 1 May – The U-2 affair: The Soviet Union shoots down an American U-2 spy plane on its way from Pakistan to Bodø, and the pilot Francis Gary Powers is later sentenced to 10 years in prison for espionage. 9 May - US FDA approves sale of the birth control pill. May 10 – The nuclear submarine USS Nautilus completes the first underwater circumnavigation of the Earth. May 11 – Four Mossad agents apprehend fugitive war criminal and Nazi Adolf Eichmann, who had taken the name Ricardo Klement. May 21 – Adolf Eichmann was flown from Argentina to Israel. 13 May – first ascent of the world's 7th highest mountain, Dhaulagiri. May 15 – Sputnik 4 is launched into Earth orbit. May 16 – Nikita Khrushchev demands an apology from US President Dwight D. Eisenhower after the U-2 spy plane flies over the Soviet Union. This ended with the "Big Four" summit in Paris. May 22 – An earthquake measuring 9.5 on the Richter scale, later known as the Great Chile Earthquake, struck southern Chile. It is the most powerful earthquake ever recorded. May 23 – Israeli Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion announces that fugitive war criminal and Nazi Adolf Eichmann has been recaptured. May 27 – In Turkey, General Cemal Gürsel carries out a coup against President Celal Bayar and the rest of the democratic government. June 20 – Mali and Senegal become independent. 23 June – Congo's first democratically elected government with Patrice Lumumba as Prime Minister takes office. 24 June – The Avro 748 makes its first flight, over Woodword, UK. 30 June – Zaïre (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) gained independence.

Third Quarter

July 1st - A Soviet MiG fighter shoots down an American RB-47 north of Murmansk. Two American officers survive, and end up in the prison in Lubyanka. Somalia becomes independent. July 4 – The United States flag with 50 stars is unveiled in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, after Hawaii is recognized as the 50th state of the United States earlier in the year. July 11 – Niger and Benin become independent. July 20 – Ceylon, today Sri Lanka, elects Sirimavo Bandaranaike as Prime Minister, the world's first female head of government. 1 August – Benin becomes an independent state. 5 August – Upper Volta becomes an independent state. August 6 - Cuba nationalizes all Amer