1961

Article

July 6, 2022

1961 (MCMLXI) in the Gregorian calendar was a year without a shooting day that began on a Sunday.

Events

Abroad

First quarter

January 12 - In the Congolese province of Katanga, President Moise Tshombe violates UN command and launches a bomb attack on the city of Manono, where Patrice Lumumba's supporters have proclaimed an independent state. January 17 - Mobutu deports former President Lumumba to Katanga, controlled by Lumumba's enemy Moise Tshombe. He will probably be murdered the same day. January 31 - US succeeds in firing a chimpanzee into space and bringing it back alive. February 11 - The trial of Adolf Eichmann begins in Jerusalem. February 13 - Lumumba's death is announced. February 14 - The Soviet Union demands that UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld resign following the assassination of Lumumba. Furthermore, it is demanded that the UN troops be withdrawn from Congo within a month and Mobutu, Tshombe and the head of state Kasavubu be arrested. February 21 - The UN Security Council rejects the Soviet Union's demands, but approves that UN forces may use force to prevent civil war in Congo. March 3 - Hassan II becomes King of Morocco. March 12 - An agreement is reached in Congo to replace the Republic of Congo with a federation of independent states. March 15 - South Africa withdraws from the Commonwealth of Nations.

Second quarter

April 12 - Soviet Yuri Gagarin in the Vostok 1 space capsule completes one Earth orbit, becoming the first human in space. April 17 - Invasion of Cuba Bay of Pigs begins. Cuban exiles with US support go ashore on the south coast. April 19 - US launches military mission in Laos. April 20 - Invasion of Pig Bay ends in disaster for Cuban exiles and the CIA. April 22 - Rebellion among the French military in Algeria. Civil war threatens France. April 24 - Gustav II Adolf's warship "Vaasa" is lifted. April 26 - A military coup overthrows Algeria. In the Congo, Moise Tshombe is arrested. April 27 - Sierra Leone becomes independent from Britain. May 3 - In Britain, diplomat George Blake is sentenced to 42 years in prison for espionage in favor of the Soviet Union. May 5 - Alan Shepard in Freedom 7 becomes the first US astronaut. The Mercury capsule is launched into a ballistic trajectory, the Americans have not yet completed an earth orbit. May 21 - Violent racial riots in Alabama, USA. May 24 - Cyprus becomes a member of the Council of Europe. May 25 - John F. Kennedy says in a speech that the United States should get people to the moon by the end of the 1960s. May 31 - South Africa becomes an independent republic and emerges from the Commonwealth of Nations. June 19 - Kuwait becomes an independent state. June 22 - In Congo, Katanga President Moise Tshombe is released on the promise of full cooperation with the government.

Third quarter

July 17 - Tunis declares its French presence in Bizerte undesirable, claiming parts of the French Sahara. July 19 - Fighting between French and Tunisian forces at Bizerte. July 21 - French forces occupy Bizerte. July 23 - UN Security Council promotes compromise resolution on Bizerte. The parties enter into a ceasefire. August 13 - East Germany begins construction of the Berlin Wall through Berlin. September 13 - UN forces in Congo launch heavy attacks on Katanga. September 8 - An assassination attempt on French President Charles de Gaulle fails. September 17 - UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld dies in a plane crash in Rhodesia. September 20 - Katanga President Moise Tshombe signs a ceasefire agreement with the UN.

Fourth quarter

October 30 - Moscow's party congress decides to remove Stalin from the Mausoleum in Red Square. October 30 - The Soviet Union tests a test of the world's largest hydrogen bomb, Tsar Bomba. November 3 - U Thant is elected new UN Secretary-General. November 15 - Congolese Deputy Prime Minister Antoine Gizenga rebels and forms his own government in